Rationality in Decision-MakingRationality in Decision-Making
Your topic should be organized in a direct manner, demonstrate thoughtfulness, logic, and the ability to apply concepts and theories you have learned in this course
On line and from class texts and lectures if relevant. Avoid “cut-and-paste’ plagiarism from the Internet. Do NOT use BLOGS or other sites that are not academic or not from a major news source. (e.g., the International Tibet Independence Movement and similar sites about Cuba, Israel, Palestine, and other controversial topics) It is ok to use Wikipedia, etc to get basic definitions, but they should not be relied on for content as entries are submitted by individuals who may have a very biased or uninformed treatment of a subject.
Anytime you make a statement that does not come from your own knowledge, you must cite it, including information coming from your text books and the Internet. This includes any facts you use in your introduction, body, or conclusion paragraphs that are not common knowledge. Minimally, the source of any ideas that are not your own need to be cited by the end of a paragraph.
For lecture citations follow the format of: Ogden, date of lecture, In Class Lecture
You are not required to do outside research for this paper beyond consulting the Web for relevant organizations and ideas. However, you may choose to do further research in order to craft a strong argument.
You may use any standard citation style you chose (e.g. MLA, APA, CP, etc.). But do not use a MIX of two types of citations.
WORKS CITED PAGE
The last page of your paper (not included in the 4 page limit) should include a full alphabetical listing of all the references you have cited throughout the paper. Each entry must include the author, title, publication information and date
Paper Topic for Intro IR: Rationality in Decision-Making
We have discussed the concept of ‘rationality’ in decision-making at considerable length.
Talk about the following states involved in difficult situations at this time: :
United States, Russia, Iran and Syria;
Begin by a discussion of the problems of understanding the ‘rationality’ of each of the actors involved (such as emotive responses, cultural differences, limitations to information, complexities of numerous known and unknown variables that will affect or be affected by a decision,etc.) —as well as determining whether an actor can really know what is the best, most ‘rational’ decision for oneself.
Then discuss according to following factors:
1. The major considerations of each of the actors if it is going to make a ‘rational’ decision about what to do in this particular situation.
2. Define the costs/benefits of various choices facing them in this relationship.
3. Consider how each actor would determine the relative ‘weight’ of each benefit and cost resulting from each decision.
THE FOLLOWING 2 SOURCES MUST BE USED OUT OF THE 5 REQUESTED (they are 2 books) (please refer to them regularly): – Cases in International Relations (5th Edition) – by Donald Snow – International Relations, 2013-2014 Update (10th Edition) – by Joshua S. Goldstein
Rationality in Decision-MakingRationality in Decision-Making Your topic should be organized in a direct manner, demonstrate thoughtfulness, logic, and the ability to apply concepts and […]
The idea that we know physical objects indirectly, by description OR (b.) The idea that we have a priori knowledge of general principles
In this paper you have to charitably reconstruct some aspect of Russell's philosophical system, and his reasons for holding it. This assignment is all about showing that you know how to charitably explain what's at stake with a philosophical issue in your own words. Doing that requires doing the following:
(1) Choose a controversial thesis that Russell's defends .Some problematic aspect of his philosophical system for example are
( a.) The idea that we know physical objects indirectly, by description
(b.) The idea that we have a priori knowledge of general principles and discuss it from “The Problems of Philosophy” by Bertrand Russell.
(2)Charitably reconstruct the philosophical view to which you will be objecting. state what the view is and why the author believes it. Make it sound as good as you can before showing why it is flawed.
(3) Explain this thesis clearly in your own words.
(4) Explain the philosophical problem that Russell is trying to solve by adopting the thesis. Explain why it is a difficult problem to solve.
(5) Explain, as convincingly as possible, why the thesis constitutes a solution to the problem.
(6) Give a clear, convincing, and well-reasoned objection to his argument.
This paper should have one inch margins, double spaced, times new roman and 12pt font.
Please note that the readings for this assignment is from the website provided below. You can get the reading from this site: http://www.ditext.com/russell/russell.html Please use this source and two other outside sources. Please make sure you use appropriate and relevant quotations from the websites. Please make sure to cite all quotation in CORRECT MLA style. Explain why the quotation is relevant to your argument. Please ANSWER and LABEL each questions correctly. Thank You.
The idea that we know physical objects indirectly, by description OR (b.) The idea that we have a priori knowledge of general principles In […]
Strategic Intent is defined as the relentless pursuit of a sharply focused strategy. What would you say Haier's strategic intent is
I would like a 4 pages, double-spaced, 12 size Times New Roman case study paper. I will post an article that you gonna have to read and answer in order the following questions that are based on this article only. Make sure that you indicate the question and then the answer.
1. Strategic Intent is defined as the relentless pursuit of a sharply focused strategy. What would you say Haier's strategic intent is? Defend your answer.
2. Summarize and comment on Haier's Integration Strategies.
3. Describe how Haier's global strategy is the same as, or different from, other Chinese companies.
4. Describe the strategic miscalculations that American companies trying to penetrate the Chinese white goods market have made.
Strategic Intent is defined as the relentless pursuit of a sharply focused strategy. What would you say Haier's strategic intent is I would like […]
Research Design Concepts
The goal of the assignment is to better acquaint you with some of the fundamental research concepts that are manifested in some of the technical vocabulary used in research. This assignment focuses on Understanding.
Below are technical terms that describe foundational concepts in research design:
Epistemology (in research)
Ontology (in research)
Axiology (in research)
Statistical conclusion validity
Criterion (or criterion-related) validity
Experimental design (experiments)
Quasi-experimental design (quasi-experiments)
Provide a written definition for each term expressed in your words, but supported by citation(s). Also, provide a brief description of why the concept represented by the term is important in research design (again, cite one or more sources). Please do NOT copy the brief definitions from the back of the Salkind text.
Next, address the following prompts, in writing:
1. Compare and contrast research epistemology, ontology, and axiology
2. Compare and contrast reliability, validity, and generalizability
3. Compare and contrast internal, external, and statistical conclusion validity. Next, compare and contrast construct, content, criterion validity. Finally, compare and contrast the first three (internal, external, and statistical conclusion) as a group with the second three (construct, content, criterion-related) as a group.
4. Compare and contrast basic and applied research.
5. Compare and contrast experimental to non-experimental research design.
Submit an approximately 10 page written paper, to include both the definitions and the comparison contrast responses. Include a list of references at the end. The written report should conform to the most recent publication style of the American Psychological Association (APA) which includes references as footnotes (each student may choose which style to follow).
Research Design Concepts Purpose: The goal of the assignment is to better acquaint you with some of the fundamental research concepts that are manifested […]
Compare your own cultural attitudes re gender. age, common interest, and social class to other cultures
Compare your own cultural attitudes re gender. age, common interest, and social class to other cultures. Use, for example, aspects of being students, working, traveling, and social mobility.
Non-kinship Based Social Groups
All societies classify people to some degree based on their age. In North America, for example, we generally label people as children, teenagers, adults, middle aged, and elderly or senior citizens. Such age-based categories are referred to by anthropologists as age grades. They are in a sense both achieved and ascribed statuses. People become senior citizens simply by living long enough. In other words, they have achieved this status through longevity. On the other hand, grandchildren cannot achieve elder status at the same time as their grandparents because they were born much later–there is an ascribed difference between them. In time, however, they also can become senior citizens.
In some societies, age grades are clearly recognized as distinct identifiable groups of people. Anthropologists refer to these groups as age sets. They are people of similar age and usually of the same gender who share a common identity and maintain close ties throughout their lives. They also pass through age-related statuses together as a group. The transition between these statuses is usually marked by a rite of passage.
Age sets are especially common in sub-Saharan Africa. Among the 1/4 million Masai cattle herding people of southern Kenya and northern Tanzania, for instance, male age-sets have been traditionally very important. The Masai strongly differentiate three major age-based male groups–boys, warriors, and elders. The latter two groups are also informally divided into junior and senior warriors and junior and senior elders.
Masai territory Masai woman and man (elder)
From the age of 6-8, Masai boys spend much of their time on their own, away from the community, sharing the work of herding cattle owned by their parents. At this time they develop the close male relationships that will last throughout their lives. When they are 12-14, boys are circumcised together in a ritual that marks their transition to a new status–they become morans , or warriors. In Masai culture, only morans are allowed to have long hair. They also dress differently and spend much of their time away from the community in a hidden training camp. They no longer herd cattle but now are responsible for their defense against predators such as lions and people who might steal them. While boys are not allowed to carry spears, morans do. They must remain unmarried during the 7 years that they are morans, but some of them secretly have girlfriends. In their twenties, the moran once again go through a rite of passage together. It marks their transition to the elder status and role within society. They reinforce their camaraderie at this time by drinking the blood of a freshly killed cow that has been specially sacrificed for the purpose, and their long hair is shaved off by their mothers to signify their new status. They are no longer warriors but are becoming respected decision makers and spokesmen for their families and communities. As elders, they are now allowed to get married when they can acquire sufficient numbers of cattle to pay a bride price. In Masai society girls usually marry in their teens and men in their thirties and later. Middle aged and older men typically have several wives.
Masai boy herding cattle and
young men with the traditional
dress and long hair of morans
NOTE: There is not universal agreement as to how the word “Masai” should be spelled. Some prefer “Maasai.”
Age sets also exist in other parts of the world but are generally not as important as they are in sub-Saharan Africa. For example, students who attend prestigious private universities such as Harvard, Yale, Oxford, and Cambridge usually identify with the members of their graduation class and keep in contact with them throughout their lives. They get together for reunions and help each other get jobs or arrange business deals. They generally see themselves as a closed group of people who have shared a common experience and continue to have common interests.
In addition to age, gender is also a universal basis for organizing social groups. While both men's and women's groups occur, men's associations are more common around the world. When gender-based groups exist in small-scale societies, every adult of the same gender is usually a member. In large-scale societies, gender-based groups become more institutionalized and membership is usually not mandatory. Typical gender-based groups in North America include the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts, fraternities, sororities, and lodges (e.g., Elks, Masons, etc.).
In Britain, male rugby
clubs like this one from
Carmathan Wales are
community groups that
Groups Based on Common Interest
Voluntary associations based primarily on common interest and experience are also widespread forms of non-kinship based groups, especially in large-scale societies. Such groups are likely to have one of the following focuses:
1. vocation (e.g., trade unions, professional associations)
2. avocation (e.g., leisure activity clubs, fraternal organizations)
3. common residence (e.g., neighborhood associations)
4. religious belief (e.g., membership in a church or other religious organization)
5. political belief (e.g., political action groups, political parties)
6. past experience (e.g., widows clubs, veterans organizations, cancer survivors groups)
Membership in voluntary associations is usually based on achieved status in addition to common interest. For instance, members of the American Medical Association are trained medical professionals (an achieved status) in addition to having a common interest in supporting and advancing the medical profession in the United States.
In some cases, voluntary associations are based on ascribed status or a combination of ascribed and achieved status. For instance, organizations based on social or economic classes commonly appear as a result of unequal access to wealth and power in large-scale societies. These groups are likely to occur at all levels of society. They may be clubs of rich and powerful families who have had this status for generations–i.e., they are from “old money” families. At the other end of the economic spectrum, there may be gangs of relatively poor, disenfranchised youths. Cross-cutting these largely ascribed class-based groups may be others based on ethnic or racial identity.
Voluntary associations are less common in small-scale societies. However, when they do occur, they are usually male military associations, secret societies, or religious cults. In some indigenous societies of New Guinea, men traditionally lived together in a “big house” where they shared the secrets of their religious belief system. There were religious cults that were largely kept secret from women and very young children. Among the Indians of the North American Plains, men commonly belonged to warrior societies.
Compare your own cultural attitudes re gender. age, common interest, and social class to other cultures Compare your own cultural attitudes re gender. age, […]