24 August 2015

Economics pespectiveconomics pespective
Paper details 
A) Use economic theory to explain how, if at all, one of the following bodies of theory can explain macroeconomic fluctuations.
• Rational opportunistic political business cycle models
• Rational partisan political business cycle models
• Models of rational nominal rigidities
• Models of rational real rigidities
(50 marks. 1,500 words maximum)
B) Use economic theory to explain how, if at all, one of the following bodies of theory can explain macroeconomic fluctuations.
• The post-Keynesian paradigm
• The Austrian paradigm
(50 marks. 1,500 words maximum)

24 August 2015,
 0

Economics pespectiveconomics pespective Paper details  A) Use economic theory to explain how, if at all, one of the following bodies of theory can explain […]


24 August 2015

“The accounting profit figure is simply a measure of the true profit of an organisation.”
“The accounting profit figure is simply a measure of the true profit of an organisation.”

Paper details

IB2300 Accounting in Context
Term 2, 2015 – Assignment
Reflective Learning Assignment (20% of assessment)
Key information (ensure you read this before attempting the question)
NB This is a different document to that for Part 1 – please read all of this document

Please submit this electronically as usual. Make sure that this upload has been successful. If there are problems with uploading you must contact the undergraduate office and resolve the problem immediately please.

Structure
This assignment comes in two parts. You handed the first part in at the beginning of Week 3.

Word Count: The total assignment [Parts 1 and 2] must total 1100 words (+/- 10%)
– so part 2 depends on how much you wrote in Part 1 but will be between 750 and 900 words. Please state the total number of words with your student number at the top of the assignment as follows:
Word Count Part 1 =
Word Count Part 2 =
Total Word Count =
Aims and objectives of the assignment
The aim of this assignment is to help you get the most from the module by requiring you to reflect on what you have learnt over the term as a result of your work for the module (e.g. summarising main points of lectures, seminar work, and importantly the reading and learning which you must do each week as the module progresses). We will discuss the content and aims of Part 2 in the final lecture in week 9 of Term 1 so it is strongly recommended that you attend that lecture.

This piece of work is therefore a reflective learning assignment rather than a straightforward essay. This means that in marking your work our main focus will be on how you discuss your knowledge and ideas: crucially it will be on how you write about how and why your knowledge and ideas have been developed and changed (or not) and perhaps even how they have been challenged during the module. In order to facilitate this reflection we are asking you the same question about accounting in Part 2 as we did in Part 1. In Part 2 we expect you to review what you wrote for Part 1. So it is very important that:
– You remind yourself of what you wrote in Part 1 and refer to that either generally or with the aid of a few quotations in Part 2.

NB: Quotation of own previous answer. Please remember this assignment will be put through the Turnitin software. Therefore if you reproduce what you wrote in Part 1 please make sure you put quotation marks around it and reference it (i.e. as your Part 1 answer). Do not give your name as the author of the quote just put “(Author 2014 Part 1)”

– Remember you must do both parts of the assignment as no mark will be awarded if only one part is submitted.

Responsibility for ability to complete this assignment
In Part 2 (Feb) we will expect you to say how and why what you wrote for Part 1 has been developed or challenged. NB This is not a forum for you to give feedback on lectures and seminars (you can do that online via my.wbs). Even if you find the lectures and seminars unhelpful (which we hope won’t be the case of course) you will be expected to have done the core reading which would assist your independent learning sufficiently to answer this question well. So, it is your responsibility to have read, learnt and reflected sufficiently throughout the 9 weeks of the module to be ready to attempt Part 2. We hope you find having this task to do useful in structuring, motivating and timing your learning.

Feedback
This is really one piece of work as part one is set in order to give you something to use as a marker of your starting point which you will now use to help you reflect on your learning over the past few weeks. Therefore you have not received any feedback on Part 1 separately. Our feedback to you will come at the end of Term 2 based on our marking the two parts together as one piece of work.

Question

“The accounting profit figure is simply a measure of the true profit of an organisation.”

Required
Discuss this statement, ensuring in doing this you explicitly reflect on how you have begun to think critically about different aspects of this statement during the learning you have done for this module.


Required (further elaboration):
In Part 1 you wrote what you know about accounting profit in October 2014.

As a result of the learning you have done for this module it is expected that you should now be in a position to critically explore, or analyse, this statement further than you did in October. We anticipate that at the very least you will be able to see that the italicised words in the statement:
“The accounting profit figure is simply a measure of the true profit of an organisation.”
have been questioned and further unpacked in different ways across the module. Indeed we hope you have been noting and tracking this as the module progressed.

Key aspects of this task:
Demonstration of critical thinking
Explaining how the questioning facilitated by the module, and explaining how encountering the new information you have engaged with through lectures, seminars, and reading, has enabled you to think further about the key terms and claims in this statement is at the heart of the task you are being set here. Do not simply state that you have been enabled to think further and leave that claim unsupported. You must demonstrate that you can think further about this by taking an example or a few examples of what you have learnt/explored to support this point.

It is up to you whether you provide a number of examples of the ways these issues have opened up the possibility of critical thinking for you, or whether you concentrate on a particular topic. One of the first things you must be clear on of course is the different ways the lectures, seminars and required reading have actually challenged you to think about these issues. So going back over your lecture notes and seminar notes and focusing on this is the first stage of this task.

The lectures, seminars and readings have pointed you to consider issues relating to the compiling and measuring of profit (and accounting information generally), and to the disclosure of information as well as to the effects of the profit figure (and related measures) on our lives. It is up to you whether you comment on issues of the context in relation to measurement and regulation, and disclosure as preconditions of reporting profit, or whether you comment on issues about the effects of (disclosing and managing by) profit and related numbers, or whether you comment on both. It is crucial to reflect on the nature of ‘truth’ in accounting – how should we describe the nature of the truth we produce as accountants? And how does the module content (or part of it) indicate a complexity to accounting?

Demonstration of Reflective Learning
This piece needs evidence of reflection: what does that mean?

For the seminars we have asked you to reflect on lecture content and bring your understanding of what was being said, and why it was being said, to the seminar for discussion. Likewise, we asked you to do the same with your core textbook reading. So at the heart of this reflective process is the assumption that you are responsible for developing what you know and understand about a subject. You need to work at making connections, understanding the relevance of topics and deciding how far you need to or want to take a question or topic. As we said in the first week of the module (and discussed in the module handbook) learning requires an active engagement with the subject. This will have involved you asking yourself questions such as:
– What were the key points for me that emerged from this seminar (and related lecture/reading)?
– What are my observations/reflections on this seminar, and reading (this topic)?
– What have I gained from this exercise (if nothing, why not) – what did other people seem to know, gain from it?
– What could I do differently/more of next time?

So in evidencing your reflective learning you may wish to:

– Discuss how particular topics, and/or reading, and/or tasks challenged you to think further about an issue you knew little about, or about which you assumed you did not need to think further about.
– Raise questions about your assumptions, perspectives, emotional reactions to the subject, arguments that you did hold/do hold.
– Reflect on why you originally held beliefs or views that may have changed now.
– Briefly describe how this particular question helps you understand the importance of learning about accounting in its context – i.e. use this piece to reflect on a process of synthesis, of pulling together thoughts about the nature of accounting generally.


References
Please refer to the lecture material, seminar material, textbook reading and any additional reading you have done to help demonstrate your critical thinking and reflective learning. Make sure you use quotation marks if you are taking examples from them, and provide the details of the source properly.

NB: Referring to core textbook
Standard assessments in other modules will often advise you that referencing mainly (or at all) from the core textbook is not acceptable as it is not evidence that you have further researched the question. Those modules assignments require additional reading as part of demonstrating a satisfactorily in-depth review of the issue.

However, in this module because it is also a reflective learning piece we want to read about how you have used the content of the textbook as part of your reflective learning and so it is fine (and desirable) that there is some mention of Deegan and Unerman (and seminar materials and lecture notes) in your answer.

In relation to the critical thinking aspect of this task we of course also encourage you to refer to other reading you have done too (be this seminar reading or other pieces you may have tracked down yourself).

Approaches which could help you achieve good marks 

– Good introduction stating your focus and direction of the piece.
– Clear presentation of how what you know/understand/believe/feel about the issues you wish to discuss is different to Part 1 answer (and/or the same).
– Use of explanation and examples to make a point (rather than reliance on general assertions).
– Discussion of how particular (referenced) topics, and/or reading, and/or tasks challenged you to think further about an issue you knew little about, or about which you assumed you did not need to think further about. Including detail about what precisely it made you think about.
– Reflect on why you held beliefs or views that may have changed now.
– Raise questions about your assumptions, perspectives, emotional reactions to the subject, arguments that you did hold/do hold.
– Discuss difficult moments which you resolved for yourself in respect of understanding some of the issues relating to this statement.
– So, sufficient reflective comment – link content to how you have engaged with accounting during the module (more about style than number of words doing this)
– Coherent writing style (spell checked, sound flow of argument)
– Bibliography
– No plagiarism!

In sum, to avoid low marks you need to be clear about what the task requires – think about the nature of critical thinking and reflective learning, take time to construct your answer, use it as an aid to pull the module together in your notes before the new term begins. Good answers are usually those that have been drafted and edited, i.e. carefully crafted before the deadline. Rushing something off the night before the deadline usually comes over as only partly thought through and the marks will reflect this.




Here is my first part of essay:





Profit is determined by comparing income with expenses. It is computed by deducting expenses incurred from income earned. However, it is not that straightforward as in reality there is a set of rules which underpin the calculation of income and expenses. These assumptions are the accruals (matching) concept, changing in price, estimation and depreciation concept (Jones, 2013).

Based on the accruals concept, profit must reflect all the relevant transactions for the financial period, not only those that represent cash and cash equivalents paid or received (Black, 2000:63). It requires certain estimations to arrive at figures for income earned and expenses incurred, such as amounts owing (accruals) and adjustments for items paid that will incur in the next accounting period (prepayments). Concerning revaluation and changes in prices, a rise in property value shows that the company has gained, but it is not a profit from trading of organisation. Calculating depreciation involves certain assumptions such as length of asset life.

‘Profit is thus contingent upon many adjustments, assumptions and estimates (Jones, 2013:98).’ Thus, accounting profit does not necessarily measure the true profit of an organisation. Based on the same organisation information, different accountants will calculate different profits, as the accounting assumption they might find appropriate could be different.

References:
Jones, M. (2013). Accounting. 3rd edition. Wiley: Chichester
Black, G. (2000). Introduction to Accounting. Financial Times Prentice. Hall: Harlow

24 August 2015,
 0

“The accounting profit figure is simply a measure of the true profit of an organisation.”“The accounting profit figure is simply a measure of the […]


24 August 2015

Legislation and Ethics in the Travel and Tourism SectorLegislation and Ethics in the Travel and Tourism Sector
Paper details 
AC 1.1 explain the legal and regulatory framework of the travel and tourism sector
AC 1.2 discuss surface, sea and air transport law in relation to the carriage of passengers within the legal and regulatory framework
AC 3.1 explain contract legislation in relation to travel and tourism customers
AC 3.2 explain consumer protection legislation in relation to travel and tourism customers
Assignment Tasks (Lecturers must link assessment criteria to questions as below)

You have been provided with a scenario, outlined below, which requires you to write an essay style answer giving advice and addressing the following issues –

1. An explanation of the legal and regulatory framework governing travel and tourism, with focus pertaining to the effect of the same on the transport of passengers carried by means of surface, sea and air transport. Explanations and discussions which present each of the relevant legal issues in a rational formation, with precisely communicated, appropriate advice may achieve a merit grade. (AC 1.1, AC 1.2 and M3)

2. An explanation of the provisions of Contract Law and consumer protection legislation relating to the travel and tourism sector. Answers that are extremely logically organised and constructed to address each issue accurately, with relevant supporting evidence may attract D2 and be considered for the template of the pamphlet.

Answers that solve problems with consistent application of the IDEA framework, giving clear guidance and explanations of the issues arising, demonstrate both creative and convergent thinking, which can attract D3. (AC 3.1, AC 3.2, D2 and D3)
Assignment Scenario

You are successfully through to the final stage of interview for a post as a junior case worker, in the Legal and Company Secretarial department of the Virgin Atlantic Airways. At this stage your expertise within the law will be addressed. 

Keen to avoid the pitfalls suffered by some of their competitors, Virgin Atlantic Airways have created specific scenarios for you the candidate to resolve, these involve individuals who have resorted to legal action, following an unhappy experience within their travels, or as a tourist.

Candidates should give detailed explanations of the relevant legal issues and accurate advice to the complainants in an essay style format.

Complaint 1 –

With a luncheon wedding to attend in Scotland on Saturday 20th July 2014, I booked flights for three passengers, with Scot Air, from London to Edinburgh on the Friday afternoon.

The flight had been overbooked and we were unable to board the plane. Following arguments with the unhelpful ground crew, we reached the decision to return to central London and board a train to our destination. For no apparent reason, the 20.10pm train was cancelled and we were forced to board an overnight sleeper train to Scotland, and asked to pay the difference in price!

As a result, we only just managed to make it to the wedding on time; we did not have the opportunity to adequately prepare for such an event. The occasion was marred by this general ineptness of both these providers.

To date, I have only been successful in recouping minimal losses for this shambles and wish to lodge a formal complaint with a higher authority or regulator, but am unsure of who oversees these providers. Please advise me as to what recourse may be available.
Your answer should include an explanation of the legal and regulatory framework of the travel and tourism sector, with a discussion focussing on the carriage of passengers by surface, sea and air transport, this should be supported with relevant statutes, regulations and decided case law examples. Explanations and discussions which present each of the relevant legal issues in a rational formation, with precisely communicated, appropriate advice may achieve M3.

This task meets with AC 1.1 and AC 1.2

Complaint 2 –

My wife and I have recently returned from a package holiday, which was meant to celebrate our anniversary. The website recommended a superior suite at the hotel and as the accompanying photographs showed a plush suite, we agreed to pay the extra amount for the romantic luxury.

On arrival at the hotel, it quickly became apparent that it was not the same suite we had viewed and this was certainly not of a superior standard! The carpet was stained and dirty, the room had not been cleaned from the previous occupants; there was no wardrobe or set of drawers for our use, just a coat rack behind the door and a rickety kitchen stool. The king size bed was actually two singles pushed together. The en suite shower, with its cracked and missing tiles, did not drain properly, and provided the constant threat of flooding the whole suite, not quite the Jacuzzi I had envisaged!

We paid for a romantic break, which we did not receive, having been fobbed off by the tour provider, I complained further, as this provider boasts ABTA membership. Once again my complaint has been minimised, with what appears to be a measure of bias towards the tour provider, I would appreciate guidance on how to pursue this matter further.


Your answer must include an explanation of the main provisions of both Contract Law and the law relating to Consumer protection in the travel and tourism sector, supported with relevant Statutes, regulations and decided case law examples. As the firm would like to produce a guideline pamphlet for Travel and Tourism Customers, answers that are extremely logically organised and constructed to address each issue accurately, with relevant supporting evidence may attract D2 and be considered for the template of the same.

Answers that solve each problem with the consistent application of the IDEA framework to address the advice given, will give clear guidance and explanations of the issues arising, this demonstrates both creative and convergent thinking, which can attract D3.
This task meets with AC 3.1 and AC 3.2

24 August 2015,
 0

Legislation and Ethics in the Travel and Tourism SectorLegislation and Ethics in the Travel and Tourism Sector Paper details  AC 1.1 explain the legal […]


24 August 2015

Irrepressable Conflict 1800's Irrepressable Conflict 1800's
Paper details 
For your final project, you will produce a modified research proposal dealing with the Irrepressible Conflict Thesis (Brinkley, pp.316) (The Unfinished Nation: A Concise History of the American People Volume 1). Your work will propose either a defense, or revision, of this thesis while relating it back to the cause(s) of the AMERICAN CIVIL WAR.
FOCUS: Explain irrepressible conflict thesis and offer an argument which suggests
knowledge of the historical subject material to which it pertains.
SCOPE: Relates to the depth and breadth of your answer as well as your overall analysis.
EVIDENCE: The body of your work should demonstrate an accurate knowledge of the historical facts which support your argument. Does your work contain factual inaccuracies or contradictions?
COHERENCE: Your analysis should follow logically and coherently. Did you organize your work effectively?
Preferred language style   US English

24 August 2015,
 0

Irrepressable Conflict 1800's Irrepressable Conflict 1800's Paper details  For your final project, you will produce a modified research proposal dealing with the Irrepressible Conflict Thesis […]


24 August 2015

What effects has the Egyptian revolution on the financial stability of the agricultural industryWhat effects has the Egyptian revolution on the financial stability of the agricultural industry?
Paper details 
Companies in the agricultural business have to deal with financial challenges, which are related to the political, and financial stability of Egypt after two major changes in the political system. These effects present major problems in financing agricultural goods needed to work in a sufficient way to produce enough food for the county and to survive financially in a sustainable way.
This work provides options how to deal with this situation financially.
In addition, collective surveys will be conducted, to gain a better understanding of the problems that affected the financing agricultural sector.
On the other hand, The secondary research will be attained through different domestic media articles, books, editorials, magazines, and newspapers 

24 August 2015,
 0

What effects has the Egyptian revolution on the financial stability of the agricultural industryWhat effects has the Egyptian revolution on the financial stability of […]


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