24 August 2015

Art and Anthropology

Art in all its forms has countless functions beyond providing aesthetic pleasure. Art can and does, for example, play a role in indigenous people's efforts to gain their rights. Explain, using various examples, how this has actually happened including the place of the arts in all its forms contribute to culture change.

http://www.lascaux.culture.fr/?lng=en
http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/bushman/
http://www.face-music.ch/instrum/mongolia_instrum.html
http://www.musicofpuertorico.com/index.php/genre/trova/

24 August 2015,
 0

Art and Anthropology Art in all its forms has countless functions beyond providing aesthetic pleasure. Art can and does, for example, play a role […]


24 August 2015

Religious Movements

Religious movements often spring up during periods called “great awakenings.” Several of these happened in North American in the 18th Century, among them Christian Science, Seventh Day Adventists, Jehovah's Witness, and Mormonism. Can we consider these movements to be revitalistic or were they revivalistic and akin to cults? Why/why not? And what about more recent movements such as Heaven's Gate, Jonestown, the Moonies, and the Waco Davidians which are not really “revitalistic” movements? Discuss how their limitations make them different from true revitalistic movements.
Common Elements of Religion

One of the hallmarks of religion is a belief in supernatural beings and forces. They can take a variety forms, not all of which are found in every religion. The beliefs usually fall into one of five categories: animatism , animism , ancestral spirits , gods or goddesses, and minor supernatural beings.
Animatism
A belief in a supernatural power not part of supernatural beings is referred to as animatism. For those who hold this belief, the power is usually impersonal, unseen, and potentially everywhere. It is neither good nor evil, but it is powerful and dangerous if misused. It is something like electricity or “the force” in the Star Wars movies.
Animatism is a widespread belief, especially in small-scale societies. Among the Polynesian cultures of the South Pacific, this power is commonly known as “mana” . For them it is a force that is inherent in all objects, plants, and animals (including people) to different degrees. Some things or people have more of it than others and are, therefore, potentially dangerous. For instance, a chief may have so much of it that he must be carried around all of the time. If he were to walk on the ground, sufficient residual amounts of his mana might remain in his footprints to harm ordinary people if they later stepped on them. Volcanoes and some other places were thought to have concentrated mana and were, therefore, very dangerous.

Animism
A belief that natural objects are animated by spirits is animism. The term comes from the Latin word for soul (anima). This belief can take diverse forms. Things in nature may all have within them different spirits–each rock, tree, and cloud may have its own unique spirit. Alternatively, all things in nature may be thought of as having the same spirit. This latter version of animism was characteristic of many Native American cultures. In both forms of animism, the spirits are thought of as having identifiable personalities and other characteristics such as gender. A belief in a powerful, mature, protective “mother nature” is an example. The spirits may be benevolent, malevolent, or neutral. They can be lovable, terrifying, or even mischievous. They can interact with humans and can be pleased or irritated by human actions. Therefore, people must be concerned about them and will try to avoid displeasing them.
Initially, animatism and animism may seem to be the same thing. In fact both beliefs are often found in the same culture. The difference, however, is that the “power” of animatism does not have a personality–it is an impersonal “it” rather than a “he” or “she” with human-like characteristics. Spirits are individual supernatural beings with their own recognizable traits.

Ancestral Spirits
One special category of spirit found in the belief system of most cultures consists of the souls or ghosts of ancestors. A belief in ancestral spirits is consistent with the widespread conviction that humans have at least two parts–a physical body and some kind of non-physical spirit or soul. The spirit portion is generally believed to be freed from the body by death and continues to exist in some form. Ancestral spirits are often seen as retaining an active interest and even membership in their family and society. Like living people, they can have emotions, feelings, and appetites. They must be treated well to assure their continued good will and assistance to the living.
In China, ancestral spirits are often thought of as still being active family members. They are treated warmly with respect and honor. Traditional Chinese families in rural villages often set a place at feast tables for their ancestors as if they were still living. If treated well, the ancestral spirits may help their living descendants have bigger crops, do better in business, or achieve other desirable goals because they are still interested in the well being of the family.


In European cultures, the spirits of dead ancestors are usually not thought of so kindly. The dead and their spirits have been seen historically as dangerous. They haunt the living and often do unpleasant, frightening, and unpredictable things. Ghosts or spirits are feared and avoided because of the danger inherent in encounters with them. This belief that the dead more likely than not will be malevolent is one of the reasons that Europeans have traditionally buried their relatives in cemeteries, which are essentially cities of the dead physically separated from the living. It also accounts for the success of Hollywood's many haunted house movies. Ghosts are stereotypical villains for people in European derived cultures. In contrast, those cultures that believe ancestral spirits are helpful usually bury or store the remains of dead family members in or around the home to keep them close. In some cultures, people eat parts of the body of dead relatives or mix their cremated ashes in water and drink it. This mortuary cannibalism is intended to allow the dead to remain part of their living family. For the Yanomamö and some other lowland forest peoples of South America, not consuming the ashes of their relatives would be extremely unkind and insensitive.

Gods and Goddesses
Most religions maintain a belief in powerful supernatural beings with individual identities and recognizable attributes. These beings are usually thought of as gods or goddesses. Another term for them is deities. Like spirits, they have individual identities and recognizable attributes. However, gods and goddesses are more powerful than spirits and other lesser supernatural beings–they can effectively alter all of nature and human fortunes. As a result, they are commonly worshipped and requests are made of them to help in times of need.
Religions differ in the number of gods that their followers believe exist. A belief that there is only one god is referred to as monotheism . Judaism , Christianity , and Islam are examples of monotheistic religions. In contrast, a belief in more than one god is known as polytheism . Hinduism is a polytheistic religion.
When there are many gods in a religion, they are typically ranked relative to each other in terms of their powers and their interests. The supreme god is often an otiose deity . That is, he or she established the order of the universe at the beginning of time and is now remote from earthly concerns (“otiose” is Greek for “at rest). As a result, otiose deities may be almost ignored in favor of lesser gods who take an interest in the everyday affairs of humans now.
The simple distinction between monotheism and polytheism may be deceptive. The truth can be much more complex. For instance, some scholars have argued that monotheisms, such as Catholicism , are actually de facto polytheisms for many of the faithful. From this perspective, Jesus, the Virgin Mary, and the saints are prayed to for guidance and help as if they were minor gods themselves. While the Christian God is considered all powerful, he is often not the one who is turned to by Catholics during life crises. Perhaps, this is because he is essentially an otiose deity for them.
Hinduism is also more complex than it may seem initially. In India and Bali, Hindus can be observed fervently worshipping hundreds of different gods. This fits the classic description of a polytheistic religion. However, since the many gods are only different manifestations of the supreme being, or Bhagavan , Hinduism can also be interpreted as a monotheism. It all depends on whether you are talking to a rural peasant farmer or an educated priest.

Minor Supernatural Beings
Minor supernatural beings are not spirits, gods, humans, or other natural beings. People do not pray to them for help. Yet these beings have some supernatural capabilities. In Western European folk tradition, leprechauns , elves , and pixies were minor supernatural beings. They were human-like in appearance and personality but could do things that were beyond the abilities of humans. Minor supernatural beings often have a “trickster” role. That is to say, they fool people, do outlandish things, and disappear. For instance, many rural people in Ireland in the past believed that elves steal boy children. As a result, mothers clothed their young sons in dresses and let their hair grow long like girls to avoid their being taken. Tricksters are frequently neither good nor bad. They do what they want and are often trouble makers. For the Indians of Western North America, coyote usually had such a trickster role in popular stories. For instance, he would skillfully disarm powerful people with his words and then magically steal what they valued most when their guard was down. In most cultures, tricksters are small, quick moving animals. In India, the trickster is usually a mouse, and in Africa it is a spider. Among the Native cultures of the Americas in which coyote did not fulfill the trickster role, it was usually a bird such as a raven. Tricksters are still popular in the high tech, industrialized societies of the modern world. However, we rarely make the connection with the tricksters of earlier traditions and other cultures. For instance, the cartoon characters Bugs Bunny and Daffy Duck are classic tricksters. They are small animals that speak and act like humans and play unexpected, humorous tricks at the expense of others and usually avoid the consequences for themselves.
http://en.fgulen.com/ The Hizmet Movement is this a revitalistic movement?

24 August 2015,
 0

Religious Movements Religious movements often spring up during periods called “great awakenings.” Several of these happened in North American in the 18th Century, among […]


24 August 2015

Discuss Dalton’s definitions of what a “good” citizen is. How does he define the engaged citizen and the duty-based citizen

Using Russell Dalton’s book as the basis for analysis, you will be writing a 3 page paper on what you think it means to be a “good” citizen. Your essay should be typed, double-spaced, using 12pt font.

Your paper should do the following:
1) Discuss Dalton’s definitions of what a “good” citizen is. How does he define the engaged citizen and the duty-based citizen? What are the distinctions between the two types of citizens? You should be citing material directly from Dalton’s book in this part of your paper.
2) Using Dalton’s two definitions of a good citizen as a starting point, how would you define a “good” citizen? What is the difference between being simply a citizen and being a good citizen? What are the characteristics that you feel a good citizen must have? Do you consider yourself to be a good citizen? Why or why not? What could you do to be a better citizen? If being a citizen is something we are simply “born” into, do we have to “grow” into being good citizens?
3) What can you conclude about citizenship and being a good citizen?

FOR THE MOST PART YOU ARE WRITING AN OPINION BASED PAPER BUT THE FIRST PART OF YOUR PAPER REQUIRES THAT YOU READ DALTON’S BOOK AND CITE HIM WHEN APPROPRIATE WHEN DISCUSSING HIS IDEAS. YOU ARE NOT REQUIRED TO USE ANY OTHER SOURCES FOR THIS PAPER.

24 August 2015,
 0

Discuss Dalton’s definitions of what a “good” citizen is. How does he define the engaged citizen and the duty-based citizen Using Russell Dalton’s book […]


24 August 2015

Discuss various cultural approaches to how this control can be established without violence – if that is possible

Political systems are ways in which cultures maintain control. Discuss various cultural approaches to how this control can be established without violence – if that is possible. Discuss the differences between authoritarianism and democracy giving examples of each and how those systems remain in control – or not.

24 August 2015,
 0

Discuss various cultural approaches to how this control can be established without violence – if that is possible Political systems are ways in which […]


24 August 2015

Quantitative Methods Concepts

Assignment 2.1: Quantitative Methods Concepts

Purpose:

The goal of the assignment is to better acquaint you with some of the fundamental research concepts that are manifest in some of the technical vocabulary used in research. This assignment focuses on Understanding.
Process:

Below are technical terms that describe foundational concepts in quantitative methodology:

Generalizability

Type I error

Type II error

Statistical power

Hypothesis

Purposeful sample

Simple random sample

Stratified random sample

Cluster sample
Statistical significance

Independent variable

Dependent variable

Intervening variable

Provide a written definition for each term expressed in your words, but supported by citation(s). Also, provide a brief description of why the concept represented by the term is important in research design (again, cite one or more sources). Please do NOT copy the brief definitions from the back of the Salkind text.

Next, address the following prompts, in writing:

1. Compare and contrast the concepts of Type I error, Type II error, and statistical power. Which of the two types of error is the most serious, and why?

2. Compare and contrast the following sampling types:

Purposeful

Simple random

Stratified random

Cluster

3. Compare and contrast independent, dependent, and intervening variables.

Product:

Submit an approximately 10 page written paper, to include both the definitions and the comparison contrast responses. Include a list of references at the end. The written report should conform to EITHER the most recent publication style of the American Psychological Association (APA) which includes references as footnotes

24 August 2015,
 0

Quantitative Methods Concepts Assignment 2.1: Quantitative Methods Concepts Purpose: The goal of the assignment is to better acquaint you with some of the fundamental […]


‹ Prev page1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 690 691 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 819 820 821 822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829 830 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849 850 851 852 853 854 855 856 857 858 859 860 861 862 863 864 865 866 867 868 869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890 891 892 893 894 895 896 897 898 899 900 901 902 903 904 905 906 907 908 909 910 911 912 913 914 915 916 917 918 919 920 921 922 923 924 925 926 927 928 929 930 931 932 933 934 935 936 937 938 939 940 941 942 943 944 945 946 947 948 949 950 951 952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 964 965 966 967 968 969 970 971 972 973 974 975 976 977 978 979 980 981 982 983 984 985 986 987 988 989 990 991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999 1000 1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009 1010 1011 Next page ›