Evaluating Truth and Validity
Select three of the scenarios in the Applications list 12.2 (a.-y.) at the end of Ch. 12 in The Art of Thinking. Seen Below** Apply the following in 350 to 500 words for each scenario:
- Evaluate each argument, using the 4-step process described on p. 218, regarding soundness of reasoning (truth and validity). Seen Below**
- Explain your assessment and add alternative argumentation where necessary.
- The Bible can’t be relevant to today’s problems; it was written many centuries ago and is filled with archaic phrasing.
- Challenging other people’s opinions is a sign of intolerance, so debating courses have no place on a college campus.
- It’s ridiculous to think that there will be fewer deaths if we ban handguns. Handguns don’t kill people;people kill people.
Steps in Evaluating an Argument The following four steps are an efficient way to apply what you learned in this chapter—in other words, to evaluate your argument and overcome any errors in validity or truth that it may contain. 1. State your argument fully, as clearly as you can. Be sure to identify any hidden premises and, if the argument is complex, to express all parts of it. 2. Examine each part of your argument for errors affecting truth. (To be sure your examination is not perfunctory, play devil’s advocate and challengethe argument, asking pointed questions about it, taking nothing for granted.) Note any instances of either/or thinking, avoiding the issue, overgeneralizing, oversimplifying, double standard, shifting the burden of proof, or irrational appeal. In addition, check to be sure that the argument reflects the evidence found in your investigation (see Chapter 8) and is relevant to the pro and con arguments and scenarios you produced earlier (see Chapter 9). 3. Examine your argument for validity errors; that is, consider the reasoning that links conclusions to premises. Determine whether your conclusion is legitimate or illegitimate. 4. If you find one or more errors, revise your argument to eliminate them. The changes you will have to make in your argument will depend on the kinds of errors you find. Sometimes, only minor revision is called for—the adding of a simple qualification, for example, or the substitution of a rational appeal for an irrational one. Occasionally, however, the change required is more dramatic. You may, for example, find your argument so flawed that the only appropriate action is to abandon it altogether and embrace a different argument. On those occasions, you may be tempted topretend your argument is sound and hope no one will notice the errors. Resist that hope. It is foolish as well as dishonest to invest time in refining a view that you know is unsound.
Evaluating Truth and Validity Select three of the scenarios in the Applications list 12.2 (a.-y.) at the end of Ch. 12 in The Art of Thinking. […]
An interest group is generally a voluntary group or association that intends to publicly promote their mission, vision, or cause. If you analyze contemporary American society and the political system, you’ll find interest groups at the very center. This phenomenon, which has seemingly risen to unprecedented heights, has changed the political landscape and significantly impacted the policy process. There are some arguments over the value of interest groups, including the notion that interest groups pose a significant threat to democratic government.
For this Discussion, review this week’s Learning Resources and consider the role of interest groups in your community, town, state, or another country and how they may be helpful or harmful to democracy.
Post your explanation of how interest groups impact policy process. Then, describe the extent to which interest group lobbying has diminished or increased over the last two presidential administrations. Explain the basis for your impressions. Then, explain whether interest group activity should be curtailed by federal legislation and why or why not. Include in your explanation how curtailing the power of interest groups might be beneficial or harmful for American democracy.
Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.
•Hudson, W. E. (2013). American democracy in peril: Eight challenges to America’s future (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: CQ Press.
◦Chapter 4, “The Fourth Challenge: Citizen Participation” (pp. 139–173)
•Shafritz, J. M., Lane, K. S., & Borick, C. P. (Eds.). (2005). Classics of public policy. New York, NY: Pearson Education.
◦Chapter 3, “Interests Groups and Public Policy”
■The Governmental Process (1951) (pp. 83–87)
◦Chapter 4, “Agenda Setting”
■The Dynamics of Agenda-Building (1972) (pp. 128–136)
•Arnstein, S. R. (1969). A ladder of citizen participation. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 35(4), 216–224. doi:10.1080/01944366908977225 Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Interest Groups Interest GroupsPaper details Interest Groups An interest group is generally a voluntary group or association that intends to publicly promote their mission, […]
Many experts describe Russia as a state capitalism system in which the purpose of the economy is to enrich the state.Given its rich supply of energy resources,is Russia likely to become more influential in global politics/ explain.Students may also want to take into consideration the recent drop in Brent benchmark per barrel for crude oil, and how this may affect the Russian economy.Paper details
answer the three questions “under discussion”
answer each question separately.The 1000 word minimum applies to the answer to all three questions, although you can write as much as you want to.
1.Many experts describe Russia as a state capitalism system in which the purpose of the economy is to enrich the state.Given its rich supply of energy resources,is Russia likely to become more influential in global politics/ explain.Students may also want to take into consideration the recent drop in Brent benchmark per barrel for crude oil, and how this may affect the Russian economy.
2.If you were a leader of the European Union , how might you prevent Russia from using its control of natural gas as a political tool to get what it wants in the system?The current crisis between Russia and Ukraine is a good case study, so feel free to include recent references to it.You can refer to articles in the New York Times and other elite media,and other media sources.Check media links in the syllabus.
3.Given the Russian strategy suggested in this story , can we speculate on what might happen as the world decides how the Arctic and all of its resources might be exploited?You can find background information on the arctic in James Astill.”Too Much to Fight over,”Article 29, in Global Environmental Issues,Unit 7, Weiner,Robert (ed)., World Politics 13/14.pp.143-144.
You should be able to answer the questions based on the readings but feel free to use any other sources, but attribute direct quotes and close paraphrasing .Otherwise, your answer must be in your own words.Your answer should be a minimum of 1000 words.The assignment is worth 20 points.
In answering this question, students should also be able to discuss the relationship between realism, neorealism or structural realism, and liberal internationalism,as they affect the answers to the questions above.You have to indicate that you have read the material in Lamy dealing with the theoretical approaches to international relations,as they affect your answer.
Many experts describe Russia as a state capitalism system in which the purpose of the economy is to enrich the state.Given its rich supply […]
Approaches to leadership
approaches to leadership
Choose 3 different approaches to leadership and write a 1 page paper that covers the following:
•Write a 1 paragraph introduction to briefly explain what the different theories of organizational leadership are.
•Discuss each of the 3 chosen approaches to Organizational Leadership.
•Be sure to include in your explanation some of the benefits or situations best suited for each type.
•Provide 2 sources.
Approaches to leadership approaches to leadershipPaper details Choose 3 different approaches to leadership and write a 1 page paper that covers the following:•Write a […]
Compare the difference between an operating budget, a capital budget, and a cash budget. What are the primary elements in each budget?Paper details
1. Compare the difference between an operating budget, a capital budget, and a cash budget. What are the primary elements in each budget?
2. Compare bottom-line financial results of using a fixed budget and a flexible budget if volumes (a) increase by 10% or (b) decrease by 10%.
3. List and quantify some of the benefits that could be derived from the acquisition of a clinical IT system.
4. List and briefly describe the purpose of the 10 effective decision support system tools and techniques needed by health care organizations.
Each answer to each question will have no less than 200 words and written in APA format, to include citations within the answer. The textbook for this class is below:
Berger, S. (2008). Fundamentals of health care financial management (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Compare the difference between an operating budget, a capital budget, and a cash budget. What are the primary elements in each budget?Paper details 1. […]