There also past exam papers for a previous version of the module, HIH2020 (‘Post-
Carolingian Europe’), for May/June 2003, May/June 2005, and May/June 2007,
May/June 2009. Please note that the format of the paper was rather different as students
were asked to do three questions in two hours including a gobbet; you will not be
required to do a gobbet question.
V Essay questions
You are required to do ONE essay plan and ONE essay but I would encourage you to do
TWO essay plans. For each essay you should read AT LEAST 6 items from the course
bibliography, and try to read some original source material; if you are in any doubt about
what to read for an essay then ask me for advice.
REMEMBER – there are other students taking this course; there will consequently be
considerable pressure on the library's resources. It is therefore essential that you do NOT
leave your research for an essay until the week before it is due. Failure to get hold of the
necessary books in time will not, of itself, be considered grounds for an extension and
inadequate and superficial research will, inevitably, be reflected in your essay mark.
NOTE: These titles are based around stand-alone lectures; exam questions will be based
on seminar topics.
? When and why did the Carolingian Empire collapse? (Bibliography section 2)
? To what extent should the vikings and Magyars be regarded as ‘an integral part of
European political culture rather than an alien and disruptive force’ (MacLean)?
(Bibliography section 3 (b) and (c))
? What factors governed relations between either the Byzantines and Ottonians or
the Arabs and Christians in the tenth century, and to what extent were relations
between the two powers amicable? (Bibliography section 3 (d) and (e))
? To what extent did royal authority decline in the tenth century? You may confine
your answer to one realm. (Bibliography section 4)
? How far can the rule of Otto I, II and III and Henry II be described as imperial?
(Bibliography section 6; see also section 4)
? Assess the view that tenth-century government saw an increase in non-verbal
communication through rituals and symbols. (Bibliography section 5)
? How far was there an increase in violence in this period? (Bibliography section 7)
? To what extent can the growth of local communities (e.g. bishoprics, parishes,
towns, villages) in the tenth century be attributed to the disintegration of royal
government? (Bibliography section 8)
? To what extent did the role of the bishop change in the tenth century? You may, if
you wish, confine your answer to one realm. (Bibliography section 11)
? Do the reforms of tenth-century monasteries reflect the needs of their monks or
those of their patrons? (Bibliography section 12)
? Why did people support the cult of the saints? (Bibliography section 13)
? Was there a new historical consciousness in this period, and if so, why?
(Bibliography section 20)
? How far can the artistic and intellectual achievements of the Ottonian church be
described as a ‘renaissance’? (Bibliography section 15)
? Did the tenth century witness the end of slavery? (Bibliography section 17)
? Has the significance of the Peace of God movement been overrated?
(Bibliography section 18)