What is an intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell
Spring 2014 – BIOL3324 Writing Assignment
Instructionshe prompt: ipRGCs. What is an intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell? Describe the ipRGC, its similarities and differences to other retinal cells, its functional role in light detection, and the purpose of the ipRGC. Be sure to describe the molecular mechanisms of phototransduction in the ipRGC.
A literature survey or review discusses a sharply focused scientific topic of interest, usually highlighting emerging themes from papers in the recent literature. While there are no hard limits, a reasonable length for the body of a literature survey should be between 3000 and 5000 words in length. In addition to the body of the text, your survey should include an abstract (no more than 250 words), no less than 10 and no more than 50 references, and may include figures (no more than three). Below you’ll find the instructions for how to present your survey. It is also beneficial when confused or uncertain to examine the example mini-reviews for how to proceed.
1. The most important thing to do before actually sitting down and doing research is to pick your topic. Use the list of topics (Spring 2014 Research Paper Topics.doc) to identify the subject that you are interested.
2. Once you have found your topic of interest, signup for the group matching your topic. Your group will serve as your sounding board and discussion group as you perform your research. Note: this is not a group project. This is an individual project that allows collaboration. Plagiarism will not be tolerated.
3. Be diligent about your research.
4. Know your deadlines. (Late submissions will be accepted for a short period after the deadline with significant penalty.)
a. First draft – Mar 7, 6 pm.
b. Final draft – Apr 25, 6 pm.
5. Prepare your drafts using the following instructions. These are the expectations that the rubric is referring to.
6. Your draft should be presented in the order listed below
h. Figure legends
General organization and text specifications
The total word count of the main text should not exceed 8000, nor should it be less than 2500. It should be formatted for a standard 8.5×11-inch paper (1 inch margins), with 1.5 line spacing throughout the whole document, and arranged in single column. The manuscript should be formatted using 11-point font (Times-New Roman (serif) or Calibri (sans serif)). Unless otherwise noted, the text of the document should be either Left-aligned or Justified. Pages should be numbered (centered in the footer.) If used in the text, gene symbols should be italicized whereas protein products should not be italicized. Nonstandard abbreviations should be defined when first used in the text. The abbreviations of some
important biochemical compounds, e.g. ATP, NADH, DNA, and amino acids in proteins, need not be defined. Use of abbreviations should be kept at a minimum. A complete list of acceptable abbreviations is available at
The title should be as short and informative as possible. Titles should occupy no more than two lines of type. The title should convey the conceptual significance of the paper to a broad readership. Please review your title and abstract carefully to make sure they convey your essential points succinctly and clearly. Abbreviations should be avoided (see above URL for acceptable title abbreviations.) The title should be centered at the top of the page.
Name of the author should not be included anywhere on the document. This is to ensure the anonymity of the author during the peer review process.
The abstract consists of a single paragraph of fewer than 250 words. (The 250 words do not count toward the total word count of the manuscript.) The abstract should clearly convey the significance and substance of the work to a broad readership. In particular, the abstract should contain a brief background of the question, a brief description and summary of the significance of the findings of the paper. References should not be cited in the Summary. The abstract should be separated from the author’s name above by two lines and two lines from the introduction below. Moreover the abstract should be left-aligned (or justified.)
The Introduction should be succinct, with no subheadings, and should present the background information necessary to provide a biological context for the results. It should always be less than one page typed. See below for citations.
This section should be divided with subheadings. It is the main body of the text and attempts to present the findings to the reader. Organization of your paper should flow from subsection to subsection. When using subheadings, you should leave a space between the preceding paragraph and the subheading. Subheadings should be simple and bolded. References within the text should be cited by number and numbered consecutively in order of appearance.
This section should not need subheadings, but if necessary follow the same criteria for the discussion. It summarizes the body of evidence presented in the discussion and outlines and analyzes that evidence in the context of the greater body of knowledge on that subject. It places the findings into context for the reader and presents the significance of the information into context and often demonstrates what still needs to be discovered. Fewer references will be found in the conclusion, because the text is mostly an
analysis by the author. However, any references within the text should be cited by number and numbered consecutively in order of appearance as in previous sections.
If you desire to acknowledge your group or a specific member in your group for any special help, this is the place to do it. Keep it simple. For example: The author wishes to thank and acknowledge Jill Jones for reading and commenting on my manuscript and Jack Smith for fruitful discussions regarding respiratory distress in left-handed, albino, pygmy aborignals. You do not need to acknowledge me, Dr. Wayne.
The following style (from JBC) should be used to cite references.
• Citation in text by number (1, 2, 3, etc.) and not by author, title, and/or date. Citations are placed in parentheses, not in brackets or superscripted. E.g. (1), not , or 1.
• Reference article titles should be included in the list of references.
• Numbered consecutively in the order of appearance in the text, not alphabetical.
• References for journals and books should be in the following styles (examples.) Please note the like of “website” or “print” found at the end of each reference. (The people at MLA are morons.):
1. MacDonald, G.M., Steenhuis, J.J., and Barry, B.A. (1995) A difference Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study of chlorophyll oxidation in hydroxylamine-treated photosystem II. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 8420–8428
2. Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.F., and Maniatis, T. (1989) Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 2nd Ed., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY
3. References appearing as e-pubs should be in the following style: Aphasizheva, I., Aphasizheva, R., and Simpson, L. (April 1, 2004) RNA editing terminal uridylyl transferase 1: identification of functional domains by mutational analysis. J. Biol. Chem. 10.1074/jbc.M401234200
4. Farrell, C. (1992) The Role of SecB during Protein Export in Escherichia coli. Ph.D. thesis, The Johns Hopkins University
If there are more than three authors, it is acceptable to use “et al.” after the third author. Journal names are abbreviated according to Chemical Abstracts (http://www.cas.org/). If you use EndNote, please note that version 6 and later do contain the proper JBC reference style with titles. When using the EndNote plugin in Microsoft Word, you will have to add the DOI after the journal title manually for all e-pub references (see reference example 3 above). You are not required to use EndNote. An exceptional paper should have between 15 and 30 references.
Preceding the page(s) of figures (see below) should be a section containing all your figure legends. A figure legend contains sufficient detail to make the figure easily understood. If you are using a figure from someone else’s manuscript, be sure to properly cite your source in the figure legend and list it in the references. If you create your own figure from someone else’s figure, you still need to cite it (e.g. adapted from (6)) in the figure legend. Note a figure legend should look like the following:
Figure X. Figure Title.
Explanation of the Figure.
You should have no more than three figures. For the purposes of this paper, you may capture and present figures from other manuscripts as long as they are properly cited (see above.) Your figures should be clear and easy to understand (along with the figure legend.) Hand-drawn scanned images are acceptable. Each figure should be presented on its own page, properly labeled. Authors are responsible for providing digital art that has been properly sized and cropped. Numbers, letters and symbols used in multi-paneled figures must be consistent. A figure should be no wider than 6 inches and no taller than 7 inches. If you do not have Photoshop or illustrator or you don’t know how to use Gimp (Photoshop-like freeware), the easiest thing to do is to use Powerpoint to manipulate an image. Once you make your figure, import it as an image into word. Asking fellow group members for help here is the best thing.
What is an intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell Spring 2014 – BIOL3324 Writing Assignment Instructions he prompt: ipRGCs. What is an intrinsically photosensitive retinal […]