26 August 2015

usicInstructions for the Social Commentary Term Paper
Overview of assignment: The Social Commentary paper is a combination of research and critical
thinking. Only the second section, “Discussion of the Social Issue,” requires any research. In fact, no
other outside information should be used in any of the other sections except for lyric quotes of the
selected songs.
The writing process: This paper is written in three stages; the first two are reviewed by fellow students
in class, the final stage is graded by your instructor after you have posted it on Blackboard and submitted
it to SafeAssign. There are five sections to the paper: 1) Introduction (single paragraph), 2) Discussion of
the Social Issue, 3) Comparison of Songs (discussing in a constant comparison fashion how the songs
discuss the social issue), 4) Music/Lyric Connection (not a comparison, but both songs are discussed),
and 5) Conclusion (again, a single paragraph).
Assignment workflow:
1. The first part you will write is actually section 4, Music/Lyric Connection. Students will bring a
hard copy of this section as well as a copy of the Music/Lyric Peer and Self-Assessment Guide
(on Bb>Course Docs>Writing folder>Peer & Self-Assessment Guides) to class. Each student will
exchange their paper with another student and provide a critique of the other student’s work using
the Peer and Self-Assessment Guide. After completing the assessment, the guide will be given to
the student assessed for reference. This section of the paper can then be revised/rewritten.
2. The second part you will write is section 1, the Introductory Paragraph. Be sure to use the
Introductory Paragraph Peer and Self-Assessment Guide to self-assess the paper before the peer
review and then bring a hard copy of the Introduction and the guide to class on the day of the peer
review. The process for assessment and rewriting will be the same as for the Music/Lyric
Connection.
3. Upon completion of the two peer reviews and subsequent rewrites, the final form of the paper, the
Completed Social Commentary term paper can be written. Remember that the already
completed sections of the paper must be included in their correct places in the final paper which
will be submitted through Blackboard. (specific submission instructions will be given prior to due
date.)
4. Your instructor will grade the paper and post grade on Bb. At that time you may opt to meet with
your instructor for clarification and explanation of your earned grade. No hard-copy or email
submissions!
(Cont. below)
Social Commentary/Activism in Music – Instructions
2 of 8 pages
Instructions for Writing Music/Lyric Connection, Introductory Paragraph and Final
Version – Comparison & Opinion: 1500 words (minimum)
Assignment
In this paper, you will choose two songs, each from a different artist (or band), preferably
from a different genre, and compare how they address a single topic of broad social interest
(social issue).
Nature of Assignment
This is a formal writing assignment requiring research AND critical thinking. There will be
sources, 2 minimum (described below,) that you are required to include in a bibliography, and
cite at points of their use in the body. DO NOT use an artist’s song/performance video as a
source for discussion, but you may use a video source that contains information about the issue.
Social Issues
Issues of broad concern such as, the environment, natural or manmade disasters, child
welfare/abuse/neglect/molestation, domestic violence, rape, abortion, gang violence, class
warfare, war, terrorism, propaganda, politics, national image, military service, religion, racism,
racially-motivated violence, slavery, human trafficking, materialism, among others, are
acceptable. In some cases, songs of a more personal nature are acceptable if they speak to a
broad audience. Topics such as mental illness, loneliness, drug or alcohol abuse (substance
abuse) would fall into this category. Generally speaking, songs about love, sex, cars, the joys of
rock and roll, or sports are not acceptable. Topics so general as to include everyone, like death,
should be covered from the standpoint of the issues surrounding it; survivors dealing with a
loved ones death, or views on the after-life are acceptable. When in doubt, consult your
instructor.
NOT ACCEPTABLE as an issue – Music, music business, artists, groups or any historical
perspective on music used to protest or bring attention to things. This is where a few students
misinterpret the title of this assignment (without reading these instructions) and assume that this
paper is on the subject of social-commentary music. It is not. It is about two specific songs that
are centered on one specific issue.
Instructions
Select Songs – Choose two songs that have the same social condition or issue at their core.
They do not have to take the same position, or even have a position, but it should be fairly
evident that the same issue is embodied in both. Further, the two songs should be written or
performed by different artists, each from a different genre of popular music. Other than
introducing an artist as “hard rock” or “hip-hop,” no further discussion of genre need ensue. If
you are unsure, you should ask your instructor.
Structure – Your paper should be divided into five sections each with its own bold-faced
heading. (Use bolded headings below, an explanation of each follows)
Read the following guidelines for the term paper thoroughly.
Through experience we have seen that most of the problems students have with assignments are
rooted in their misunderstanding of the instructor’s expectations. We have gone to great lengths to
explain our expectations here. Please avail yourself of this information by reading thoroughly and do
not hesitate to consult your instructor for clarification.
Social Commentary/Activism in Music – Instructions
3 of 8 pages
Sect. 1- Introduction (written second)
Sect. 2- Issue Discussion
Sect. 3- Comparison of Songs
Sect. 4- Music/Lyric Connection (written first)
Sect. 5- Conclusion
Sections 2, 3 & 4 will each be more than one paragraph long. Avoid long and
unstructured paragraphs. Sections 1 & 5 should be a single paragraph. Follow content
guidelines below for each section:
1) Introduction – The introductory paragraph will be submitted as a separate
assignment second, after section 4, Music/Lyric Connection.
This is the opening paragraph. It should be concise and to the point, while giving the reader a
good sense of what they are about to read. Avoid giving the reader too much detail here.
Include the following:
a. introduce topic issue, being as clear as possible to identify or define the issue. If
you cannot name the issue in three words or less, you may need to refine it.
b. introduce the songs and the artists, including album references and release
years (see class text appendices B & C for text formats of song and album titles.)
c. a reference to a relationship between music & lyrics (Sect. 4, Music/Lryic
Connection) Since there will be a section of the paper (which you will have
already written) on this critical thinking element, there should likewise be a
reference to it.
d. A strong thesis – central point to be bourn out in paper. The thesis is a clearly
defined statement of intent, which includes the salient points that will have been
addressed in the paper. Your thesis should be a summary idea, not a question or a
list of what you are going to write about in the paper. Imagine having already
written the paper and creating a single sentence statement defining what the
reader should expect to learn. If it seems like a challenge, you are doing it
right.
———- end of Intro Paragraph assignment————
2) A discussion of the social issue – more than just your opinion or general knowledge.
This is where your 2 (or more) sources come in. Here you can describe the issue in more
detail, separate from the songs’ discussion of it. You are expected to demonstrate
critical thinking here. Simply pasting in some text from a website does not constitute
original thought. You will be evaluated on how well you synthesize what you have
gleaned from your research. Regardless of how other disciplines cite sources, we expect a
citation referencing the bibliography, every time you quote or otherwise use information
from that source. (This is NOT the case for lyrics, see discography below) This section
should NOT be longer than the following section! If it is the longest section, then you
have missed the point of the assignment.
3) A comparison of the songs and their respective takes on the issue, whether it is an
outright strong position, or a declarative, matter-of-fact approach. Keep in mind that the
SONGS are ultimately the subject of the paper. Though the two songs have the same
social condition or issue at their core, they do not have to take the same position, or even
have a position. It should be fairly evident that the same issue inspired both.
Social Commentary/Activism in Music – Instructions
4 of 8 pages
NOT ACCEPTABLE: Any discussion of the artists’ motivation/inspiration for writing
or recording the song. We are ONLY interested in what the lyrics have to say (to you) on
the issue.
a. Effective use of lyric quotations is key to helping the reader make the connection
to the subject (see below for information on citing lyrics). Long blocks of lyric,
however, or entire verses are seldom necessary and are often cumbersome. If you
feel the entire chorus is germane to your argument, then at least break it up into
digestible parts, with some discussion inserted. Use sufficient lyric quotes to bring
reader into the song, but not so many it dilutes their potency.
b. Comparison in this assignment means specific, direct, side-by-side comparison
of the ideas at hand. Integrate the discussions of how each song addresses the
issue throughout this section. DO NOT discuss songs separately. You will lose a
minimum of a full letter grade if this discussion is not integrated.
4) Describe the Music/Lyric Connection. This section will be written first and peer assessed
in class, later to be revised and submitted along with the completed term paper. A
minimum two examples per song explaining how the music supports/enhances the
meaning of each song (four total examples). Please see section below, *Examining the
Music/Lyric Connection, as well as the “Understanding the Music/Lyric Connection”
document on Blackboard and the accompanying streaming musical examples.
Remember, this is actually the section you will write first.
5) Conclusion – wrap up the main thoughts of your discourse; show the reader that the
thesis was proved out. A strong conclusion is critical to a successful paper.
6) Discography
A discography of albums used for your papers is required, and should include the name
of the artist/group, title of album, record company, year, and catalog number (usually
found on the thin edge of the cd case – on either end.) (see example format below).
This should be on a separate page at the end of your paper, or it may appear after the
bibliography on the same page, but DO NOT mix discography and bibliography sources,
keep separate and label as such.
**The source for the lyrics is the song itself, NOT a website that publishes them.
Therefore the reference is in the discography. Cite only the albums from which your
songs come (see explanation below). The discography acts as a blanket reference for all
lyrics quoted, with no citation marks required in the body of the paper. Put another
way; It is not plagiarism to copy lyrics off of a website and not cite it BECAUSE it is not
the original source, the CD is. As long as you have a discography, quote away!
Discography – finding the info:
BUT WAIT – “My songs are downloaded.”- or – “I don’t have the physical disk the
songs are from.”
If you do not have the original CD cover, you will have to research to find the
information required. If you know the record company that released the song/album, you
can find the catalog number on the company’s website (you do not need to cite the
website, however). If you do not know the record company and/or the album title, a good
source is www.allmusic.com. If it is a popular artist, you can go to a music retailer and
NOTE
Social Commentary/Activism in Music – Instructions
5 of 8 pages
copy the info off the CD spine.
Example: Miles Davis, Bitches Brew, Columbia Records (1969), G2K 40577
(please notice: no song title – because the song is like a chapter in a book, which is
likewise not listed in a bibliography.)
7) Bibliography: You must list all sources in a bibliography and cite them in the body of
the text when they are being referenced. Web sources must include the complete URL
address. Wikis of any kind are not an acceptable source.
2 possible methods – choose one:
1) Hybrid: Number sources in bibliography 1 thru X. All citations will use the same
numbers, corresponding to the source as listed in the bibliography. Like an
endnote, but citations won’t necessarily be in numerical order, plus the same
source (and corresponding reference number) may be used multiple times. (see
details on p. 1)
2) Any accepted standard reference citation method – endnote, parenthetical,
bibliography, using MLA, APA, Chicago Style Manual, Turabian, etc.
When you cite an internet source, you must include: author (if known), title of
article or page, date (if known), and full URL (not the home page) of the source.
DO NOT copy/paste bibliographic text from websites without changing font to
match the rest of your paper.
Bibliography, notes, or song lyrics are considered extra with respect to the required paper
length.
Evaluation:
Evaluation of your paper will be based on the depth and sincerity with which you go into
comparing the songs. Discussion of biographical/historical events that have influenced the
artist, or are otherwise about the inspiration for the song, is irrelevant to this assignment.
The evaluation of your term paper will be based on how well you address the aforementioned
guidelines. Specifically, 40% of the term paper grade is based on writing ability (formal, thirdperson
prose, organization, grammar, spelling, etc…), 60% on content. The content grade will
be based in part on the degree to which you (1) integrate interdisciplinary skills and knowledge;
(2) demonstrate intellectual acuity, imagination, and sensitivity; (3) demonstrate awareness of
interrelationships among music, self, society, and culture; (4) apply argumentation and
methodology of music; and (5) interpret, perceive, and apply course content.
Important: In addition to the above, read “appendixes B-D” in your course packet. These
guidelines apply to the term paper and are binding with respect to the term paper grade.
The vast majority of the writing must be yours. Your reactions, thoughts, and opinions are
more relevant to this assignment than those of anybody else.
———–end of instructions——–
*Examining the Music/Lyric Connection – a guide to understanding and writing about it.
Music –The artist can use any aspect, characteristic, or element of music to support lyrical ideas
they want to convey. Below is a list of common elements in much of pop music, each followed
by qualities to consider. Discuss any of the following in conjunction with a lyric discussion or
Social Commentary/Activism in Music – Instructions
6 of 8 pages
quote. In your paper, include more than one aspect, demonstrating, as best you can, what that
element is doing, what impact these aspects have on the meaning – of the lyrics being examined
at that point, or its support of the general idea in the song. Choose from the following aspects or
derive your own:
 vocal – style, delivery, range, intensity, dynamics, sound quality, tone, backing vocals,
usually the most direct connection to lyric. (see Vocal inflection, under Connection below)
 instrumentation – the instruments used in a song/band. Should be limited to the contribution
of the sound of the instruments, as a group make, i.e. the banjo, fiddle and harp give the song
an intimate warmth. It is not necessarily what each individual instrument plays. Their
contribution can be discussed in connection to an individual instrument (see below). Note:
instruments play, instrumentation just IS.
 tempo – slow, plodding, ballad, somber, moderate, mellow – indicate a sad or reflective
mood. Fast, upbeat, moving, churning, charging, burning – indicate a happier, more animated
mood.
 dynamics – general volume changes, specific loud or soft passages, often connected to
texture.
 texture – layering of parts, few = thin, many = thick, can also mean many layers of the same
instrument or voices
 production – may relate to sound, instrumentation. May include studio techniques: mix, echo
or reverberation effects, texture, special sounds, sound effects.
 Individual instruments:
• drums/percussion – beat, groove, intensity, dynamics, syncopation, includes electronic
or sampled drums (drum machine, beat-box)
• bass – rhythm, intensity, density, prominence, consistency.
• guitar – acoustic, electric, rhythm, lead, tone, solo.
• keyboard – traditional sounds; piano, organ. Or synthesizer, weird, special effects.
• horns – saxophone, trumpet, trombone, etc.
You should make observations and draw conclusions. In every observation should be a sense of
the contribution that it lends to the music. Moreover, using above aspects, make a point to
discuss how your song’s music enhances or amplifies what you perceive to be the meaning of the
song. Put simply, you should have a reason for mentioning the observation.
Lyrics –
1) In the introduction to your paper try to discern and convey (in brief) the overarching
message, mood, moral or meaning in the lyrics.
2) All lyric discussion must be describing a connection to the music.
 Use of lyric quotes
The most direct way to connect the reader with the song is through the effective use of lyric
quotes. It is not the abundance of lyric quotes we are looking for, it is the effectiveness of the
ones you use. Do not just write about the lyrics, rather show evidence through direct quotes.
Make observations regarding the text of the song. What is it about? Does it tell a story? Not all
songs tell a story, but they usually have a meaning. Interpret the meaning. If you cannot, please
choose a different song! Look for a general message, mood or moral. If it adds to the reader’s
understanding of the meaning, observe something about the structure of the lyric: rhyme scheme;
first person or third; wordy or efficient; concrete or abstract.
Social Commentary/Activism in Music – Instructions
7 of 8 pages
Connection
Discuss how and to what extent the music enhances the lyrics. In order to clearly MAKE the
connection you must use lyric quotes in conjunction with the musical aspect you are describing.
Without them, the connection is vague to nonexistent. Consider this formula as you write:
Lyric quote + musical aspect + emotional impact = CONNECTION
Since we have already established that music enhances lyrics, to simply write, “the music
definitely enhances the words of the chorus” is inadequate. It neither addresses the words OR the
music. That is like a defense attorney adamantly swearing to his client’s innocence without
presenting any evidence! Look for the specific mechanism. It can be one or a combination of
many things. A guitar riff, the pulsing bass, a drum beat that is steady or one that is convoluted,
the singer’s delivery, his/her vocal tone, or quality, or range, or volume, or intensity or all the
above, bringing a nuance to the song beyond the written word. Remember, these are impressions.
There is no right answer per se, but write it as though it is a fact, unapologetically.
Ways that music relates to lyrics:
Word Painting: The most obvious type is direct word painting, i.e. the word “stop”
coincides with the band stopping momentarily; a line about a car, coinciding with a guitar
imitating an engine revving or tires screeching. Lyrics involving falling (leaves, rain, snow,
in love) accompanied by a downward moving melody, countermelody, or other
instrumental device. Some songs even include sound effects (thunder, rain, surf, seagulls,
train on tracks, gunshot, cars, etc.)
Vocal inflection: There is usually a more direct emotional connection from the voice to
words, for obvious reasons – listen for it. An impassioned, near cracking voice, at the top
of his/her range, pleads, “don’t go/ I can’t live without you” conveys the emotion lacking in
the words alone. Try to describe the mechanism (why or how) conveying an emotion, i.e.
the voice is smooth, husky, smoky, gravely, gasping, screeching, laughing, full throated,
belted, whispering, childlike, sarcastic, slurring, enunciated, etc. NOT effective: “…she
sounds happy, (sad, angry, hurt)” – it does not describe why or how. A combination of
mechanism + emotion is most effective.
Representation: Where a musical element (vocal or instrumental) represents an idea,
person, emotion or thing. Examples:
The swelling string section where he sings, “My heart takes flight…” represents
his love for her, as though his heart is flying away, out of his control.
Nearly whimpering, she sings, “A black hole where my heart should be” as the
pounding rhythm halts suddenly, leaving only the voice, brilliantly depicting the
emptiness felt.
Emotion: Less direct, but effective, (and more likely) the mood of a lyric section matches
something in the music, i.e. a lyric expressing an uplifting, joyous idea is accompanied by
music that is animated, generally moving up or, has a lot of major chords. Conversely, a
sad or reflective part may be accompanied by slower moving music, a smaller ranging
melody, or minor sounding harmony. A dark or ominous subject can be supported by an
agitated, dissonant (unsettled) background. Notice how different emotions are expressed
musically.
MOST IMPORTANT!
Social Commentary/Activism in Music – Instructions
8 of 8 pages
Emphasis: Sometimes lyrical phrases or words are emphasized or punctuated by the music.
It could be done by the singer singing the word or phrase harder, higher or both. It could
also be achieved by instruments hitting a stop just before, or making stabs surrounding the
word or phrase. This kind of connection is usually characterized by something unusual in
the song. Logically, you cannot assert that the “drumbeat” or the “style” of the song
emphasizes a meaningful lyric. Those elements are more or less constant. Conversely, if
the drums (or any instrument) hit something departing from the established groove, on or
around the word(s) in question, that is an emphasis.
Construction and Strategy
• Thesis – placed at the end of the intro, it informs the reader, in very brief terms, what they will
learn by the end of the paper. It is NOT a statement of what YOU are going to DO, “analyze
the issue and words to show a connection…” That is the process you are going through. To the
contrary, a thesis is about the RESULT of that process. If your thesis only addresses the story,
told through the lyrics, or the issue, then the reader will not be fully informed about what they
are about to read.
• Use declarative third-person prose throughout. References to self (I, me, my) have no place in
a formal paper – including “I will discuss…,” “I chose this song…,” “in my opinion…,” “I
think…,” etc. Neither should you use the pronoun “you,” which is addressing the reader. Use
the word “one” to replace ”me” or “you.” –ex. “the lyrics give one a sense the story is
allegorical rather than autobiographical…” – or avoid the issue altogether, “the lyrics tell the
story allegorically rather than autobiographically…”
• Integration – To the extent that you closely compare ideas and lyrics of the two songs you will
do well to alternate between songs as the discussion unfolds. It is not a comparison when one
song is discussed at length followed by the other. Instead, breakdown the discussion into
digestible elements and compare each element more directly.
• References to points in song – Identify events, lyric quotes, etc. relative to sections of the song,
such as: introduction, verse, pre-chorus, chorus, bridge, solo, interlude, ending, as may apply.
Do NOT refer to minutes and seconds, i.e.. “…at 3:22 there is a guitar riff…”. It is of no help
to the reader.
• Chronological Commentary – Resist the compulsion to go through the songs’ lyrics
completely, in the order they appear, and explain what they mean. Not all lyrics are of equal
importance. The song’s relationship to the issue does not rely on the order in which the lyrics
come. Neither do you need to only compare verse to verse or chorus to chorus.
• Research/Organization – Begin by finding the songs, of course. Research the social issue.
That should be the easiest part. You will be judged in part on the quality of your sources.
Don’t use the first item you find.

26 August 2015,
 0

usicInstructions for the Social Commentary Term PaperOverview of assignment: The Social Commentary paper is a combination of research and criticalthinking. Only the second section, […]


26 August 2015

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Support your analysis by referencing and citing at least three credible sources in addition to the course textbook, which can also be cited in your essay.

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Capital PunishmentPaper instructions:first paragraph should be the introduction whisch contains the thesis statement in the last sentence. thesis statement should be an idea, opinion, […]


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