26 August 2015

Reading Journal Assignments for California History
Reading Journal Assignments for California History

In the journal you will write reflections and observations on various documents, and tell how they help  us understand ideas and events we are covering in class.  In the early part of the course you will  use documents in Connecting California.  You may also comment on the pictures and maps.  When we get to the 1880s and more recent times, I will help you find other documents to write about.

Please focus on a few related documents at a time.  You may also write about what you read in  Competing Visions(Cherny) or in the introductions to each section in Connecting California,to add  historical context.  Examine each document critically, and consider how it adds to our understanding of the history or the cultures we are studying.  You may also write your own reflections on what you are learning, and perhaps relate your learning to other courses or experiences.

You get about one point for each page you write.  (You will turn in the Journal four times.  If you write five pages each time, that could get you twenty points for the whole thing.)  Please double space and use a font that is about as  large as Times New Roman 12.  You may use any style, but please divide your writing into paragraphs so it is easy to read.


Journal Prompts

Here are some prompts that you might want to use:

1.      What did you learn from the documents in this section?  What did you find surprising?  How does the material in this chapter relate to what you learned earlier, perhaps in other classes?

2.      How does this section build on the chapter before it?  How does it set us up for what is coming next?  What events do you see here that have shaped the world we live in today?

3.      If you did a movie set in the time period of this section, what would be the key elements in your movie?  Tell how you imagine the characters, and what challenges they would deal with.

4.      Why is the chapter hard, or not so hard, for us to understand today?  How might we understand the history differently from someone living in the time period?  Do you think people will react to this chapter differently, depending on their cultural background or life experiences?

5.      When examining a document or artifact:  How does it help you understand the era?  What are some important factors to consider when looking at this document?  Does the document answer questions you might have had, or does it just raise more questions?







26 August 2015,
 0

Reading Journal Assignments for California History Reading Journal Assignments for California History In the journal you will write reflections and observations on various documents, […]


26 August 2015

Philosophy
Paper Topics for Introduction to Philosophy

Here are the topics. I have included on for every section we have done.  As you can see, I have mapped out how each paper should go (i.e. to answer the question).  About sources, you can always use the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, which is online. Also, I’ve tried to include some recommended readings- elementary ones for the most part.  Remember, though, that getting sources is up to you- your responsibility.   

Skeptics (Descartes and Hume) suggest that we cannot have any knowledge. But if so, that means we must be content with mere belief. Is there any way out of skepticism about the external world? Or, should be skeptics? To answer these questions, first of all, you should defineknowledge, and say why we might not have it.  To do this, moreover, you should go over the various skeptical arguments (from Descartes’ Meditations 1 and 2, and then, from Hume).  That is, you should go over Descartes’ doubts, and the Problem of Induction. This needs to be done with care. After all, there is the issue of getting these arguments correct. After you have done this, you should mention some of the standard ways to either mitigate or escape skepticism. Now, here, you should mention John Locke, as well as the responses from philosophers such as G. E. Moore, and Wittgenstein, as well as offering your own thoughts. End by offering a conclusion.

1.     Read Ultimate Questions, chapter 3. 
2.     Descartes, Meditations 1 and 2, in the Packet.
3.     David Hume, Enquiry into Human Understanding, selections, on Blackboard
4.     G. E. Moore, “Proof of an External World,” in  Reason and Responsibility, eds., Feinberg and Shafer-Landau
5.     Michael Huemer, “The Lure of Radical Skepticism,” in the Truth about the World, eds., Rachels and Rachels
6.     Anthony Kenny, Descartes: a Study of his Philosophy, chapter 2
7.     Lawrence Bon Jour, Epistemology, chapters 1-3
8.     Thomas Nagel, What does it all Mean?, chapter 2
9.     Simon Blackburn, Think, chapter 1
10.                        Horner and Westacott, Thinking Through Philosophy, chapter 2  

Do we have freedom of the will, or not?  To answer this question, you should define free-will.  Then, of course, go over all four of the usual positions: determinism, indeterminism, soft determinism (both types) and libertarianism, in some detail. However, as noted in class, given all the paradoxes involved with any answer, there is no expectation that you offer a definitive position. Even so, what you can do, at least, is to get all the positions correct. And, you can argue that one of these positions is more persuasive than the others. Remember, though, that in doing this, you must say why you are so moved, and must not rely upon any blind assumptions.  In fact, you might even argue that, in the end, you cannot reach a conclusion, and that is fine.  Still, make sure to wrap up your essay with some sort of summary of what you have argued.

1.     Read the text, chapter 4.
2.     Pierre de Laplace, Essay on Probability
3.     Baron d’Holbach, “The Illusion of Free Will,” in Reason and Responsibility, eds., Feinberg and Shafer-Landau
4.     Brand Blanshard, “The Case for Determinism.”
5.     David Hume “Liberty and Necessity,” as reprinted in Freedom, Determinism and Responsibility, ed. N. Campbell
6.     Harry Frankfurt, “Freedom of the Will and the Concept of the Person,” in various places.
7.     J. P. Sartre, Existentialism is a Humanism.
8.     Richard Taylor, “Freedom and Determinism,” in Freedom, Determinism, and Responsibility, ed. N. Campbell
9.     Roderick Chisholm, Human Freedom and the Person
10.                        Thomas Nagel, What does it all Mean?, chapter 6
11.                        Simon Blackburn, Think, chapter 3
12.                        James Rachels, “The Debate over Free Will,” in  Reason and Responsibility, eds., Feinberg and Shafer-Landau
Personal identity, of course, is what makes you who you are, at any given time, and over time.  However, as we have seen in class, this is difficult to say what this is.  What, if anything, does personal identity consist in?   After offering your introduction, you should delineate the arguments for the Illusion, Body, Soul, and Memory theories (and all the usual authors, such as Hume and Locke), in some detail.  Remember to explain the problems with each of these theories, as well as to weigh the relative importance of these.  Importantly, these theories are mutually exclusive, and so you cannot argue for a combination of them.  So then, after covering the theories and their problems of these four theories, make sure to spend some time on elaborating your choice, and saying why you find your choice is more persuasive. Conclude by summarizing your argument.

1.     Read the text, chapter 5. 
2.     David Hume, “On Personal Identity.”
3.     James Giles “Hume, Buddhism, and Personal Identity.”
4.     John Locke, Essay Concerning Human Understanding, selections, on Blackboard
5.     Derek Parfit, “The Unimportance of Identity,” in R. Martin and J. Barrisi, Personal Identity
6.     Parfit and Vesey, “Brain Transplants and Personal Identity,” in Readings on the Ultimate Questions: an Introduction to Philosophy, ed. Rauhut
7.     Basil Smith, “John Locke, Personal Identity, and Memento.”
8.     Ted Sider, “Personal Identity over Time,” in Riddles of Metaphysics, eds. Conee and Sider
9.     Simon Blackburn, Think, chapter 4

It often seems that we have minds and also bodies.  That is, they seem different in some way.  We are often told they are.  After all, what else is heaven for?   Even if mind and body are different, how can we show this?   Moreover, it is mysterious how these two substances- one being not physical the one being physical- can interact. This is the mind/body problem.  What is the best solution to the mind/body problem?   To answer this question, first of all, you should introduce the problem (say what it is, and why it is a problem).  Next, of course, you should cite the arguments for substance dualism, property dualism, the identity theory (or physicalism), and functionalism.  Remember, as well, to cite the problems with these theories, along with their relative importance.  Be careful here to not rely on any blind assumptions.  And, make sure to say why your position is clear. Develop why you have chosen one of the options here.   End, as usual, with a conclusion.

1.     Read the text, chapter 6
2.     Rene Descartes, “The Incorporeal Mind,” in Western Philosophy: an Anthology, ed J. Cottingham
3.     Howard Robinson, “Dualism,” Stanford Internet Encyclopedia   
4.     U. T. Place, “Consciousness is a Brain Process,?” on Blackboard
5.     Smart, “Sensations and Brain Processes.”
6.     Frank Jackson, “Epiphenomenal Qualia,” in Readings on the Ultimate Questions: an Introduction to Philosophy, ed. Rauhut
7.     Thomas Nagel “What it is Like to Be a Bat?,” on Blackboard
8.     Jerry Fodor, “The Mind body Problem,” in J. Crumley, ed., Problems in Mind: Readingsin Contemporary Philosophy of Mind
9.     Peter Carruthers, “The Mind/Brain Identity Theory,” in Feinberg and Shaeffer-Landau eds., Reason and Responsibility 
10.                        Paul Churchland, Matter and Consciousness, chapter 2
11.                        Simon Blackburn, Think, chapter 2
12.                        Horner and Westacott, Thinking through Philosophy, chapter 3

How we define right and wrong is very important, as our choice about this will affect how we are motivated, and what we do. After all, our positions on happiness, rules, or virtue govern how we approach individual issues, such as abortion or poverty.  Remember that most definitions of right and wrong have the form of something like this: X is right (or Y is wrong) because of property Z (which defines right and wrong).  In this paper, then, compare Relativism, Utilitarianism, Virtue Ethics, and Deontology, and choose which is better, as a theory.  Of course, to do this, you must master all these theories. Of course, you must also cover the problems with Relativism, Utilitarianism, Virtue Ethics, and Deontology.   And, alas, they are all fraught with serious problems.   Still, regardless of which theory you defend, make sure to be clear and not to rely on blind assumptions (e.g. that people are all good).  As always, offer a conclusion.

1.     Read the text, chapter 8
2.     Ruth Benedict, “Defense of Ethical Relativism,” on Blackboard
3.     David Wong, “Relativism,” in Singer ed., Companion to Ethics
4.     James Rachels, The Elements of Moral Philosophy, the chapters on these theories.
5.     J. S. Mill, Utilitarianism, chapter 1 and 2.
6.     Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics, books 1 and 2.
7.     Robert Louden, “The Vices of Virtue Ethics,” in Timmons, ed., Content and Character.
8.     Immaneuel Kant, Fundamental Principals of the Metaphysics of Morals, preface and book 1.    
9.     Mark Timmons, Moral Theory, chapters 3, 5, and 7
10.            Lawrence Hinman, Ethics: a Pluralistic Guide to Moral Theory, chapters 2, 5 and 6

Many people believe in a single God.  Others, of course, believe in many.   Of course, that does not mean than anyone can support any of these beliefs. Faith, of course, is admitting you believe you have no support.  Given that we have to have some reason to believe in the God or gods we want to believe in, the question arises: What are the arguments for the existence of God?  And, what, if anything, do these arguments prove?  Can we believe in God based on purely pragmatic reasons (e.g. it feels good)?   To answer these questions, you should define this being (or beings).  This is important, since without a precise definition we do not know what God or gods we are talking about.  Afterwards, you should delineate these arguments, from Saint Anselm (the Ontological Argument), and Thomas Aquinas, and his famous “Five Ways.”  Lastly, you should cover the arguments of Pascal and William James, both of whom believe in God but hold we should do so withoutarguments.  Of course, no matter what position you defend- yes, you can defend the idea that God does not exist (e.g. by citing the problem of evil), or is very unlikely- you must defend your arguments, and answer objections.   Offer a conclusion, as usual.
 
1.     Read the text, chapter 7.
2.     Saint Anselm, “The Ontological Argument,” on Blackboard
3.     Thomas Aquinas, “The Five Ways,” on Blackboard
4.     William James, “The Will to Believe,” on Blackboard
5.     Stephen T. Davis, God, Reason, and Theistic Proofs, chapters 2, 4, 6, and 7
6.     Richard Dawkins, The God Delusion, chapters 3 and 4
7.     Simon Blackburn, Think, chapter 5
8.     William Rowe, Philosophy of Religion: an Introduction, chapters 2-5
9.     Richard Gale, On the Philosophy of Religion, chapters 1-4
10.                        David Hume, Dialogues on Natural Religion, chapters 10 and 11.
11.                        H. J. McCloskey, God and Evil, in Klemke ed., To Believe or not to Believe: Readings on the Philosophy of Religion
12.                         James Beebe, “The Logical Problem of Evil,” in The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy 




26 August 2015,
 0

Philosophy Paper Topics for Introduction to Philosophy Here are the topics. I have included on for every section we have done.  As you can […]


26 August 2015

journal Review
100 pts. for paper and 20 pts. for presentation
It is important to know where you can find the newest information in your field. One of the most common ways to stay current in new scientific trends is to follow a journal.
Your assignment is to identify a professional journal in your field that has been in print for at least 5 years. After looking through a few journals, decide on one journal that will help you with future research in your field. Your review of the journal should address the last three (3) to four (4) years.
To review this journal, you will need to:
1.      Name the journals that you initially considered and explain why you rejected two (2) of them. Why did you decide to review the journal that you chose? How will this Journal be important to your research and knowledge in the future?
2.      Give a brief overview of the purpose and content of the journal you chose. This should include information such as: content, clarity, organization, types of studies/articles, frequency of publication (how many issues per volume?), and is it available in print, electronically, or both?
3.      What are the guidelines for submitting a manuscript/paper for publication in the journal? (NOTE: this might be in small print or on a separate page called submission guidelines or “Call for Papers”). Are there specific limitations to pages, types of studies, number of tables, etc.? What kind of format do the submissions have to be in (APA, Chicago Manual of Style, AIP, ACS, CSE).
4.      How is the journal arranged?  Is there a title page, table of contents, separate sections for empirical study, reviews, comments, letter from the editor, etc.  Are there advertisements? If so, what?
5.      When looking at the table of contents, what research/topic trends do you notice? REMEMBER, look at the most current issue and go back 3 to 4 years and identify these trends.  Were there any “special issues” that were different from the regular issues?
6.      NOW FOCUS on two (2) articles. They can be from the same volume, but NOT the same issue. 
·         What topic does each article focus on?  What is the research question? Where did you find this information in the article?
·         How is the article organized?
·         What kind of article is each? (Is it empirical, literature review, cross sectional, longitudinal, qualitative, quantitative, etc.?) Where did you find this information?
·         If there are data/results, how are they displayed?
·         Assess the quality and level of writing. Who might be the audience for each article?
·         Identify three elements of the article that stood out to you (title, abstract, results, charts, tables, clear writing, etc.).  How did each element affect your reading of the article?
7.      Who would you recommend this Journal to? Give specific reasons explaining how the journal is useful.  Are there any drawbacks? Explain.

This ”Journal Review” will need to be typed in Times New Roman, double spaced, 12pt. font. You will need to follow APA guidelines for the title page, in-text citations, page number, running head, and references page. (NOTE: We will discuss these in class).

Important Dates:
Bring a copy (paper copy) of your journal’s table of contents from the last 3 to 4 years: 4/17
Bring a copy of one article your will review from your journal: 4/22
Final draft of journal review due: Monday, 4/28 at 7:00p.m. to Blackboard.

Presentations will be on 5/1

26 August 2015,
 0

journal Review 100 pts. for paper and 20 pts. for presentation It is important to know where you can find the newest information in […]


26 August 2015

Aspect of contract of negligence for businessAspect of contract of negligence for business
Scenario:  You are working as a legal assistant for one of the senior partners in a local firm of solicitors.  They have asked you to consider the following case studies and to prepare a report for each one.  Your reports will require you to consider each set of circumstances and to express your recommendations, based on your knowledge of UK law.

Case study 1

Jess advertised a second hand van for sale on a car trade website for £2650.00. Mr. Powell views the advertisement and call Jess to express his wish to buy the van. But due to the fact that he lives 600miles away he offered to come and buy the van after 3 days. Jess says that she would sell the van if any other customer wishes to buy the vehicle before Mr. Powell arrived. For this Mr. Powell agreed to pay £450 pounds in advance if Jess promises she would not sell for the next 3 days. Jess agrees to this.

Case study 2

Barry goes into a park which is managed by his local council. He sees a notice which states that chairs are for hire for 50p per hour. Barry pays the 50p and is given a ticket and a chair. Later, the chair collapses under him, damaging his clothes. When Barry complains, the attendant points to a clause on the ticket which states, “No liability is accepted for any damage or injury caused by the failure of any hired equipment.”
Task 1:  LO1 (LO1.1, LO1.2, LO1.3), M1

Considering the Case study 1 mentioned above, define the legal meaning of the term ‘contract’ and explain the important elements of a valid contract. Identify and discuss the terms of offer and whether there has been acceptance of the offer. Identify the intention to create legal relations and the consideration of moving between the parties. Discuss the impact of different types of contract and analyse terms in contracts with reference to their meaning and effect, and explain the factors that would impair the formation of a contract.
To achieve M1, the learner will be able to carry out wide research using different reliable sources to identify and apply strategies to explain, analyse and make effective judgements about elements of contract.
Task 2:  LO2 (LO 2.1, LO 2.2, LO2.3), D1

Are the council entitled to rely on the clause? Taking the scenario in Case study 2 into consideration, apply the elements of contract in given business scenarios.  Apply the law on terms in different contracts and evaluate the effect of different terms in given contracts.

To achieve D1, the learner needs to critically evaluate key points and draw conclusions while making a synthesis of ideas and justifying them effectively. The learner is also required to propose realistic improvements of the positive features of the terms and suggest improvements before discussing how well the terms meet the needs of the both parties.

26 August 2015,
 0

Aspect of contract of negligence for businessAspect of contract of negligence for business Scenario:  You are working as a legal assistant for one of […]


26 August 2015

Aspect of contract of negligence for business
Scenario:  This scenario continues, as before, in Assignment Brief B.  You are working as a legal assistant for one of the senior partners in a local firm of solicitors.  They have asked you to consider the following case studies and to prepare a report for each one.  Your reports will require you to consider each set of circumstances and to express your recommendations, based on your knowledge of UK law.


Case study 3  

3. Adam advertises a reward of £1,000 for the first person to paddle across the English Channel in a bath, from Dover to Calais. Brian sees the advertisement in the news paper, purchases a bath, and sets out from Dover. On the same day, whilst Brian is in mid-channel, Adam places another advertisement in the same news paper announcing that the reward is being withdrawn with immediate effect. Unaware of this, Brian continues his voyage and duly arrives in Calais. Brian then claims the reward. Adam refuses to pay.

Task 3:  LO3 (LO 3.1, LO3.2, LO3.3), M2, D2

Is Brian entitled to claim the reward? Taking this scenario into consideration, contrast liability in tort with contractual liability.  Explain the nature of liability in negligence and explain how a business can be vicariously liable.

To achieve M2, the learner will be using the given business scenarios to apply the law on terms in different contracts while evaluating with evidence of two or more sources of information for each legal point in the assignment.  To achieve D2, the learner will demonstrate the qualities of managing and organising responsibility in order to carry out activities. 





26 August 2015,
 0

Aspect of contract of negligence for business Scenario:  This scenario continues, as before, in Assignment Brief B.  You are working as a legal assistant […]


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