Utilise survey data – make sure you make maximum use of the survey document which is included – many energy saving measures can be identified without looking at the energy data.
Logical progression – the report must follow a good logical progression from analysis of energy and survey data, to recommendations made.
Recommendations – marks will be awarded for recommendations for energy saving. Something is possible for every building.
Overall understanding – a mark will be awarded to reflect overall understanding of the module.
A provision in the marking scheme exists for a small amount of extra marks to be awarded for any additions which benefit the assignment which do not fall into the above list.
The sections of the assignment which have been included are very good but crucial sections are missing which were required as part of the assignment brief. The report as it stands is well written and presented showing good insight. Recommendations are complete and the report shows good use of survey data. A strong set of references has been included. Unfortunately the report does not merit a pass since missing sections include benchmarking, regression, Cusum analysis, and half hourly, all of which are vital parts of energy analysis techniques.
For good marks, the demonstration of regression would generally include some comments on the degree of scatter within the plots, good scaling, so that the curves are clearly visible, and when the cluster of points does not seem to represent a straight line, comments, where appropriate regarding other curve shapes, which may fit, and reveal more detail about building controls. With regard to cusum plots, it is particularly good to pick out events which are identifiable from the curves and to continue analysis or interpretation on this basis. In other words, merely producing a Cusum does demonstrate an ability to follow the method, therefore does not score is highly as a demonstration of an understanding of interpretation. Half hourly profiles when produced, are best taken from smaller snapshots of data, such as for a weeks worth of data or for a month. Plotting half hourly profiles for periods of for, example a year, can produce excessive smoothing, with consequent loss of detail. The ideal situation is to identify a cusum event, and have a look at half hourly profiles shortly before and shortly after the event, to see which changes have taken place, for example renovation works on the building, could also include maintenance of the control system, with consequent elimination of unoccupied weekend heating.
Recommendations ideally are grouped logically in terms of payback or urgency. Ideally, a numerical estimate, would be given , but a grouping with the quickest payback option coming first in the list, is a basic sound method of presentation of recommendations. Additional marks are awarded for good use of the survey data, including attention to maintenance issues, which could also affect overall energy efficiency. Recommendation of low-cost measures, and zero cost measures, such as switch off campaigns, and staff training, are always worth mentioning for all sites, since in some situations, energy savings could be higher than 10%. The logical progression between energy data analysis, analysis of the survey data, and the recommendations made, should ideally be demonstrated. This means that if the graphical results of the energy analysis techniques methods demonstrated, but a description of what these plots really mean is not included, then the causal link between analysis and recommendations is lacking, and therefore this would be an area of possible improvement.
Overall understanding of the module and the requirements of the assignment brief, is demonstrated by the inclusion of appropriate data and analysis, including, amongst other factors, report length. If minimal or no analysis has been carried out for any of the sites due to the perceived lack of data, it should be remembered that the amount of data that we have these buildings, frequently compares very favourably to the situation energy managers are often confronted with. Where floor area data is unreliable for example, an inference can be made from the floorpan sketches, or by looking at aerial images in for example Google Earth, or by using the building external photographs. Students are reminded that building envelope heat loss calculations are not explicitly required for this assignment.
A preliminary energy audit has been conducted at Babington College and Ellesmere College in Leicester. The energy usage data available for these sites does not extend past 2008 in either case. This report contains the findings of that investigation.
The recorded data for Babington College addresses the main gymnasium. The standard collection was done for electrical consumption of kWh at 30-minute intervals and weekly intervals between 2001 and 2008. The standard collection was also done for gas usage at Babington College between the years 2005 and 2008, again at the recommended intervals of 30 minutes and weekly. The data available for Ellesmere College is less reliable however simple observations inform this report. The technical data provided for Ellesmere covered both electrical and gas in the same parameters as for Babington. There are gaps in the Ellesmere data because of inoperable equipment. The electrical data covers the period between October 2004 and April 2008. The gas data collected covers the period between November 2004 and April 2008. In both cases, this data addresses consumption rates at 30-minutes intervals and weekly. The next step after this report is to obtain bids and make recommendations for renewable technologies that could be implemented on these college campuses. In the case of Ellesmere, bids need to be obtained for renovation as well as for demolition and new construction.
Babington is well on its way to an environmentally sound and sustainable campus. The main gymnasium at Babington should be bid for a Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) to see if it meets payback requirements.
There exists a regulations and recommendations for schools in the United Kingdom to meet an energy efficiency obligation (EEO). In order to meet the EEO a quantitative analysis of energy usage is required as a preliminary step. After the initial analysis, other surveys should be undertaken to establish mechanisms and structural alterations that will assist schools in meeting general requirements for effective energy efficiency. Government agencies in numerous jurisdictions have undertaken measures to encourage and assist schools in improving their end-use energy efficiency. In Leicester, the City Council began passing measures and goals for energy efficiency back in 1990. Progress for Babington College has been great however; progress for Ellesmere has fallen behind even the most limited of achievements.
There are two features of EEO that both schools need to consider:
The school administrators need to establish how much funding will be required to meet EEO goals by contacting vendors and construction companies for bids;
The school administrators must produce, or cause to be produced, an action plan, appoint an Energy Champion (discussed later), and establish a budget in order to apply for funding. By establishing the needs of the schools in relation to the cost of improvements the correct EEO scheme will demonstrate the length of time it takes to enable recovery of the funds spent.
When the schools invest in new appliances the purchasing agents need to make sure that they are buying A or B rated appliances. This is especially important as it relates to those that constantly run such as fridges and freezers.
Another feature of EEO that both school can implement immediately at no cost relates to non-structural energy saving behaviours:
Turning off computers, lights, and other electrical appliances when not in use. In the case of both school computers were found to be left on at full power even when the schools were in between terms and the computers were not in use at all. Additionally installing at socket switches will help in saving energy. Faculty and staff need to turn off lights when rooms are empty.
The purchasing agents need to buy energy saving light bulbs, which on average reduce electrical usage by 80% compared to incandescent bulbs. Additionally these bulks have a lifespan 10 times greater than incandescent bulbs.
Establishing recycling processes: Collection bins for aluminum, glass, paper, etc. should be placed at locations around the school campus. Additionally, because these are schools committed to education creating composting collection bins for vegetable, fruit, and garden matter can immediately decrease the amount of waste sent to regular rubbish collection by 30%.
1.1 Main Gymnasium Babington College
This technical report is an outline of the energy usage at Babington Community College at the main gymnasium. This outline is designed to be used with a broader research that addresses the issues of how retrofitting and other possible measure could reduce the energy usage at this school
1.2 Northernmost Block Ellesmere College
This building reveals so many problems and has such extensive deterioration and so much deferred maintenance that besides a retrofit assessment and estimate for new construction is advised.
2. Babington College
Babington College was built in the early 1980’s, and houses around 1300 pupils, and around 60 teachers. Leicester City Council owns the site.
The Building Schools for the Future Programme is working with Babington College on refurbishments. The goal of this refurbishment program is that energy saving retrofitting be completed by 2014. The sequence of buildings at Babington that will be addressed by the energy audits and are scheduled for work are the Art, Design & Technology, PE, Performing Arts, SEN, the Resource Centre, Catering and the Administration block. Externally the development of the Amphitheatre including the seating is currently taking place.
The Leicestershire Badminton Association leases the main gymnasium area for evening use at a flat fee. As a result, Babington College has the burden of paying for the rising cost of energy at the facility. This includes heating and 100 x 175 watts of lighting units (17,500 watts). The lease agreement is for a fixed term. The building suffers from noticeable dampness. There is evidence that the steel electrical conduit is rusting.
Babington College is obviously committed to contemporary sustainability ethics as can be judged by their retrofitting and new constriction program noted in the introduction of this report. This technical report about energy usage at Babington College seeks to analyze the accessible energy data and draw comparisons between Babington and other similar situations as well as industry benchmarks.
2.1 Energy usage patterns
It was fortunate that Babington staff were enthusiastic and worked hard to assemble comprehensive energy consumption data based on different intervals because not all energy users are so enthusiastic and willing to participate in audits. This data was provided in the form of excel spreadsheets available for inspection upon request. In this report, the data for gas usage will be addressed first because it relates to the boilers. The data for gas usage collected was at 30-minute intervals and weekly intervals between the years 2005 and 2008. Second, the data for electrical usage will be addressed. The data for electrical usage provided represents 30-minute intervals and weekly intervals between the years 2001 and 2008. In this report, the electrical data is cropped to make it more relevant to the goals of this energy audit.
2.2 Boiler energy consumption data
The boilers for the building are four large modulating boilers. Two boilers are the Ideal Viscount and two boilers are the Ideal Viceroy. Due to acoustic dampening it was difficult to identify the pressure jet burner ratings so the working assumption is that they operate at a rate in excess of 1,000kW rated output. The collection of data for gas usage, heating, and the boilers was more challenging because of the amount of space and variety of materials in the buildings. The varied height of the ceilings, issues with the roofline, as well as the age and variable thickness of the brick walls made analysis trickier. In general, this type of data is gathered by either 1) examining equipment operations directly and recording gas usage or 2) measuring the temperature and flow rate of water as it enters and exits the central heating system. Both measurement techniques allow for calculations and conclusions about the effectiveness of energy consumption. In this way, conclusions about the amount of the energy the boiler uses is determined. The data based on the gas usage is represented in Figure 1.
Figure 1 (Gas Weekly Usage)
Figure 1 (Gas Weekly Usage) indicate that the usage is extremely high in November, February, and March every year, however, there was a gas dip November 2007. The data available for 2008 indicates that spikes occurred in January, March, and April. Not surprisingly, this indicates that when the weather is colder the usage is higher.
2.3 Electrical consumption data
Figure 2 presents the electrical consumption for Babington Community College for 2006, 2007 and 2008. The trends indicate a pattern in usage that is consistent with weather patterns and facility occupations days. The trend exists for all years until late 2007 when there was an electrical dip and then the beginning of 2008 when usage spikes dramatically.
Figure 2 (Electrical Weekly Usage)
Comparisons of these years reveal that usage is somewhat consistent as expected however, there is a great deal of variation between 2008 and previous years. The usage is consistently high, however not as high as the record highs in 2006 and 2007.
This study would benefit from an historical analysis of the weather for these three years however as it is the amount of electricity being used is above the preferred rates for environmentally sound and energy efficient buildings.
3. Ellesmere College
Ellesmere College is a Specialist Sports College in Leicester. It is a secondary school that is designed for students ages 11-19 with learning difficulties. The enrollment cap at the college is 250 students. The college campus consists of a southern area built during the 1920s and 1930s. This area has been maintained and is moderately efficient. The northernmost area was built in the 1960s and is somewhat dilapidated. The building overheats during the summer months. The interior has been maintained however, the exterior is in need of drastic repairs and renovation. When first contacted the staff at Ellesmere were resistant to participating in an energy audit.
Location: Ellesmere College Ellesmere Road Leicester LE3 1BE
Ellesmere College is in need of retrofitting in order to be energy efficient. At the time of this energy audit, Ellesmere had not contracted for funding. The main contact at the college refused to allow an energy audit. The auditors explained that the Leicester City Council itself was enthusiastic about energy and sustainability for its schools. The person in charge at Ellesmere subsequently approved this preliminary energy audit. In this technical report, Ellesmere College energy data was drawn from a variety of building locations located in the northern block.
3.1 Energy usage patterns
Ellesmere College staff provided data regarding its gas and electrical usage from 2004-2008. This data was presented and assembled into a spreadsheet based on the week of the year. In this report the data for gas usage is considered first and data for electrical usage will be considered second. The data for gas and electrical usage was provided represents 30-minute intervals and weekly intervals as is usual.
3.2 Boiler and Heating Energy Consumption
Ellesmere has old coal boilers that have been retrofitted with gas burners; the capacity of these boilers is unknown but the staff at Ellesmere estimates each boiler operates at is 100 kW each boiler as a minimum figure. There are radiators using a mixed fan assist units in steel cases enclosed single panel units. The heating controls appear to be a simple timing switch with localized thermostats. These arrangements require a more in-depth survey and data collection than is available for this report, however many conclusions are obvious from the inspection. The main boiler control panel was installed when coal fired units were in use and many of the valves are corroded due to leaking spindle packing. The kitchen comprises three high-energy use gas fryers and two commercial gas ranges.
The northernmost block of the school built in the 1960s is reported to be uncomfortable in both the winter and the summer. In the summer the buildings there overheat. The gas regulator is non-functional and therefore gas pressure is low. Low gas pressure causes the boilers to be inefficient. According to the Ellesmere caretaker, he has contacted the Leicestershire City Council as they own the site however, the Council has not offered assistance, and the caretaker reports that he does not know who is responsible for the maintenance of the gas regulator. The caretaker also notified British Gas Transco about the no-functioning gas regulator.
The data based on the gas usage is represented in Figure 3.
Figure 3 (Ellesmere Gas Usage Weekly)
Figure 3 (Ellesmere Gas Usage Weekly) indicate that the usage variations are dramatic and this is probably due to periods during which the gas is not flowing because of the condition of that equipment.
3.3 Electrical consumption data
Figure 4 presents the electrical consumption for Ellesmere Community.
Figure 3 (Electrical Usage Weekly)
Ellesmere operates 40 computers, a commercial washing machine, and freezer all on electric; none of them is energy efficient. The amount of electricity being consistently high and far above the preferred rates for environmentally sound and energy efficient buildings. The cooling at Ellesmere is also an issue because it takes the form of mechanical ventilation via window fans in addition to an outdated and inefficient freestanding Air-Conditioning (AC) unit in the Computer Room. The caretaker reports that this AC unit habitually overheats.
3.4 Extra Notes
The northernmost block of the college is in a state of dangerous disrepair and disorder. Windows are not supported in some places; there are large air gaps and rotted wood casings. This means the old glass will shatter easily upon impact. This presents a known danger to students and employees.
4. General Recommendations
According to the 2010 report Climate Change and Schools in the United Kingdom schools account for 2% of overall carbon emissions and that is the equivalent of 15% of public sector emissions in the United Kingdom. Carbon management in the United Kingdom aims to have the school sector reduce its energy use in schools 53% by 2020. The approaches to renovating and retrofitting Babington and Ellesmere College need to be developed with an eye toward finance. This includes considerations of investment and return. Babington is already well on the road to having a modern energy efficient infrastructure. The Babington approach so far has been to invest in new buildings. Whether or not the estimates for retrofitting the main gymnasium will be the difference between possible demolished and renovation. In the case of Ellesmere College the northernmost block may in fact turn out to be a total loss after estimates for repair and retrofit are assembled. Another factor Ellesmere needs to take into consideration has is that the buildings as they stand now are safety hazards, a barrister would be able to advise the school on how well they could defend against a negligence lawsuit. Because both schools represent teaching opportunities it seems that Ellesmere could benefit by the example set by Babington and others schools that have obtained grants and financing to perform energy retrofits. A report on IMSERV directs schools on how to be “Energy Savvy,” there are five guidelines.
5.1 Energy Data
To make the best assessment the energy-related data collected needs to be as complete and accurate as possible. That is not always as easy as it sounds, especially when dealing with colleges such as Ellesmere where nonfunctioning equipment makes data collection guesswork at best. There are many recommendations for smart-metering being installed so that on-going monitoring of data is enabled. As it is this data has been provided by both Babington and Ellesmere via utility companies. After retrofit it is important to continue to monitor data in order to ensure that all operations are functioning at maximum capacity.
Because personnel in schools may not be trained in environmental studies with the aim of becoming expert at measuring energy efficiency they often need to consult with experts in the field. Babington has benefitted greatly from this type of consultation. It is hoped that this preliminary report and assessment of Ellesmere College will result in a more open and willingness on their part to explore the possibilities of further research.
In both cases assessed in this report the ability to interpret data and observe was enough to make an assessment. The patterns at both schools were predictable. The situation at Ellesmere would no doubt surprise many in the field who have not had a firsthand encounter with that schools infrastructure. The report offers enough information that both of these schools can continue to analyze energy consumption patterns.
Response and co-operation is vital when attempting to implement an energy consumption audit and make recommendations.
5.4 Monitoring Progress
After retrofit there is a need to continue to monitor energy consumption behaviour. The infrastructure can be made efficient but the people in the structure need to adjust their work environment as well.
5.5 Holistic Approach
This report recommends having someone at the schools who is designated as an ‘Energy Champion.’ That person will apprise others of changes needed and accomplishments to date.
In the United Kingdom and elsewhere around the globe buildings are the biggest users of energy. Sustainable buildings will reduce energy and carbon emissions by utilizing technology that is cost-effective in the long view. By implementing structures that use state-of-the-art products and pursue net- zero energy-building goals. Babington College demonstrates that it has clear and obtainable goals as long with a willingness to practice sustainable and energy efficiency. Ellesmere College is near the high end of school energy use and has other issues such as safety issues.
Comparing the schools with data from 2001-2008 leaves this report without data for the last five plus years. So these assessments are based on an educated and generic understanding of energy goals. A more exhaustive and comprehensive investigation could be made of these two colleges, but based on the empirical and technical observations of this report estimates for retrofit, repair, and replacement are the next best course of action.
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