26 August 2015

Deforestation

I. INTRODUCTION
Popular descriptions and public understanding of environmental issues are often
superficial, missing key facts and arguments. This course aims to improve your ability to
think critically about issues concerning environmental conservation, which means
considering multiple, often-different perspectives on an issue.

The research essays will help you survey current sources of accurate information and form
your own knowledgeable position or argument. Being able to effectively communicate a
well reasoned, well-researched argument is a skill that will serve you well in whatever
career you pursue.

II. WRITING YOUR PAPER
During this semester, you will write two research essays. For each paper, you will:
1. Choose a specific topic related to environmental conservation.
2. Develop a thesis statement concerning that topic.
3. Provide compelling and accurate evidence that convinces the reader.
4. State the counter evidence or alternative interpretation.
5. Provide a synthesis in the conclusion.
6. Provide sources for the information presented in your paper.

Your thesis statement is the core of your paper and should be introduced in the opening
paragraph. It is the basic argument or position concerning your chosen topic. The goal is to
convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.
Excellent: a clear statement that lets the reader know exactly what you are trying to
communicate. 
Good: an argument is given, but the reader must reconstruct it from the text.
Needs improvement: the argument is not specific, and thus it is not defensible.
Poor: no attempt is made to articulate an argument.

Evidence represents the facts and arguments you will use to explain and defend your
thesis. Research involves reading journal articles, newspaper and magazine articles,
recently published books, and web sites. Textbooks, encyclopedias, and lecture notes are
useful, in a limited capacity, to provide initial background information. Strive to understand
the author’s motives that might influence the source’s style and content. For example, two
overviews of New York logging practices, one written by a timber company and the other 2
by an environmental advocacy group, might present wildly contrasting pictures.
Remember too, that you can’t make current arguments with out-of-date information.
Excellent: is compelling and accurate, and convinces the reader to accept the main
argument.
Good: reader must make a few mental leaps to fully understand the main argument
Needs Improvement: is incomplete, incorrect, or over simplified.
Poor: is basically information presented in class.

You should consider arguments that counter your position, and cite evidence and argue
against them. Remember, the research papers are intended for critical thinking by you. The
higher the quality and depth of your thinking, the more impressive your paper will become.
Excellent: presents counter evidence that could refute or weaken main argument,
and responds to it thoughtfully.
Good: presents counter evidence to the main argument, but does not effectively
explain why the argument still stands.
Needs Improvement: presents obvious counter evidence with little or no response.
Poor: fails to consider opposing point of view.

The conclusion should do more than summarize the information you just presented.
Although a conclusion should not introduce new information, it can also be a place to use
critical thinking to synthesize the info you already have presented in different ways. A
conclusion should:
Revisit your thesis statement, and perhaps provide a more nuanced and informative
version of it throughout your paper. If you presented plenty of information to
back up your point/sum up your argument, the conclusion can be even more
specific than you were in your introduction. 
Remind the reader why this topic and your position on it matters.
Acknowledge the scope and limitations of your research. Critical thinking can be
displayed by recognizing the bounds of your argument/findings, and
explaining what might be missing. After recognizing these limitations, you
can go on to make thoughtful, more informed comments on broader
implications.
Comment on some broader applications or implications of your findings. For
example, a student writing about hidden drawbacks of organic farming
practices in the United States may then infer that we also need to consider
the validity of 'organic' farming practices in other countries that may have
even more lax environmental regulations.
Based on your findings, make some recommendations for future research or policy
action.

Sources give credit to the research you presented in your paper. Any facts, statistics,
statements that are not common knowledge, and ideas that are not your own must be cited.
A citation occurs within the paper itself (Yavitt 2013) and should immediately follow the
use of an author's idea. Your Literature Cited section, which occurs at the end of the paper,
includes only items you cite directly in your paper. Please use standard formats for basic 3
bibliographic information recommended by the American Psychological Association (APA).
For more information on the APA format, see http://www.apastyle.org.
Excellent: evidence from a wide range of sources, including class, websites, journals,
books.
Good: evidence from several sources, but relies heavily on a limited set.
Needs Improvement: uses mostly web sites
Poor: relies on non-scholarly sources

Note that blogs and other information on the Internet can be a useful source of information,
but you should be aware that there are no regulations on what appears on the web
(excluding open-access, refereed journals), in contrast to scholarly journals that are
carefully checked for accuracy. Be sure to cite web pages, as described below.

Example
Author's name. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical,
volume number, Retrieved month day, year, from full URL

Devitt, T. (2001, August 2). Lightning injures four at music festival. The
Why? Files. Retrieved January 23, 2002, from
http://whyfiles.org/137lightning/index.html

26 August 2015,
 0

Deforestation I. INTRODUCTION Popular descriptions and public understanding of environmental issues are often superficial, missing key facts and arguments. This course aims to improve […]


26 August 2015

What is the Fourth Amendment Search Warrant Requirements and are there exceptionsPaper instructions:
1. What is the Fourth Amendment Search Warrant Requirements and are there exceptions? If so, what exceptions apply to a crime scene.

2. What is the Exclusionary Rule and is the Fruits of the Poisonous Tree Doctrine applicable to evidence collection at a crime scene.

3. What services to modern crime labs provide to investigators.

4. What is the CSI Effect, what has been its impact on jurors.

26 August 2015,
 0

What is the Fourth Amendment Search Warrant Requirements and are there exceptionsPaper instructions:1. What is the Fourth Amendment Search Warrant Requirements and are there […]


26 August 2015

Hessler’s River Town or Chang’s Factory Girls
GHUM 252 Final Paper


For this paper you will produce a close reading of either Hessler’s River Townor Chang’s Factory Girls. Your close reading will focus on how you think the author curates their depiction of China and its Chinese inhabitants. The argument should involve external research that covers similar topics in a different fashion. After you’ve analyzed the way in which the author curates their material, you will make an argument about how that curation affects the accuracy of their depiction. This argument will also depend on external research that supports or conflicts with what you see in the original author.

Important things to remember:

1) You don’t have to cover every single way in which the author curates his/her material. As with the first paper, find a single theme you think shapes the book’s approach to key aspects of Chinese culture.

The theme could be economics, gender, education, psychology, subjectivity—whatever you happen to see as important to the author. You’ll need to figure out the author’s attitude towards that theme, how that attitude shapes their selection and presentation of material, and whether that selection is more or less accurate.

2) Remember to focus on close reading. Find specific passages and specific words that you think provide evidence for your claim. You might also look at how the book is structured—which information gets presented when? Take time to go back and find places where the author talks about how she/he approaches the material. Are they consistent in their approach?

3) Make sure you define accuracy, both for you and for the author

4) You’ll need outside research for both sections, but primarily the second section. In the first section I’d like to see outside research used as a counterpoint to your argument about the author’s approach to curation.

For instance: “Although he never states his belief explicitly, Peter Hessler thinks that Chinese people are made out of hot lava. This comes out in his focus on heat-based topics such as spicy food, as well as his use of metaphors that invoke verbs and adjectives associated with volcanoes. Notice, for example, how Hessler describes noodles as ‘melt in your mouth’ delicious. Typical descriptions of noodles talk about them as slimy or chewy, as in this restaurant review: ‘The noodles were slimy, and also chewy!’

In the second section you’ll be more thorough with your research, trying to evaluate the accuracy of the author’s depiction. Find specific claims that the author makes, or come up with an implicit claim based on their approach to curation. Then, compare that claim with other sources. Are they similar? Different? Both? Which is more accurate and why?
Example: “Although Hessler’s belief that Chinese people are made out of lava is mistaken, this actually allows him to be more accurate in his depiction of Chinese culture.”
5) Each section should be 3-4 pages, which means your paper should be between 6-8 pages. Don’t sweat the page limit—focus on good writing.

6) Think about counter-arguments. A counter-argument doesn’t respond to the author; it responds to your claim about the author.

Wrong: “It might appear as though Chinese people aren’t made out of lava because, well, people aren’t made out of lava.”

Right: “It might appear as though Hessler doesn’t think Chinese people are made out of lava, because that’s a very extreme claim, and most authors would make those kinds of claims explicit.”

7) Proofread your paper.

8) Proofread your paper.

9) Make sure you leave yourself time after completing your first draft. That way you can go over the paper with fresh eyes and find inconsistencies. Don’t be afraid to make big changes—your paper will thank you for them!




26 August 2015,
 0

Hessler’s River Town or Chang’s Factory Girls GHUM 252 Final Paper For this paper you will produce a close reading of either Hessler’s River […]


26 August 2015

The Pact” Poem by Sharon Olds
The Pact” Poem by Sharon Olds
Paper instructions:
Write an explication essay on the poem “The Pact” by Sharon Olds.

26 August 2015,
 0

The Pact” Poem by Sharon OldsThe Pact” Poem by Sharon OldsPaper instructions:Write an explication essay on the poem “The Pact” by Sharon Olds. Click […]


26 August 2015

English and Literature

Research Essay:

In your first essay, you examined one text through the lens of satire. In your second, you compared the approaches of two different authors. In your final essay, you will expand the scope to look at one of the literary or artistic movements that we focused on in the second half of class: Magical Realism, Surrealism, Dystopian Science Fiction, or Post-Modernism. Your essay will combine theory and artistic analysis with research to compose an original essay based on your examinations of one of these movements.
This essay will provide you with a large degree of freedom in choosing your topic. Think of it as an opportunity to further explore something that has interested you in class. Some general topics you might explore: The influence of Surrealism on modern street art, the political impact of Magical Realism in Latin America, or what cultural changes are bringing a rebirth of modern dystopian SF works in 2014 with books like The Hunger Games . The topic is really up to you. I will be available to help you in beginning your research (for example, if you wanted to compare the Magical Realism of South America to Magical Realism in Africa I could suggest works for you to consider) but you will be doing the research yourself.

As this is a research essay, you will be conducting research using Baruch’s extensive library system. You will need to use a minimum of 5 sources, at least 4 of which must be works that were not assigned in class. At least 3 of these sources must also be critical or theoretical tests. Your essay will need to include a bibliography as well as in text citations using standard MLA guidelines. We will go over these in class.

26 August 2015,
 0

English and Literature Research Essay: In your first essay, you examined one text through the lens of satire. In your second, you compared the […]


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