1.Write a short (1 page) essay examining two attempts at defining “religion” to exemplify the difficulty anthropologists confront in trying to construct a conception broad enough to encompass cross-cultural diversity. (20 points)

2. Drawing upon V. Turner’s ethnographic descriptions, write an essay (2 pages) applying the intellectualist (Tylor/Horton), Durkheimian sociological, and Engels/Marxist sociological perspectives to analyze and explain Ndembu rituals. (30 points)

3.Write an essay (2 pages) discussing religious leadership in its various forms. What are the various forms of religious authority? How can we distinguish between different types of religious specialists such as shamans, mediums, prophets, and priests? Which forms of authority do shamans, prophets, mediums, and priests represent? (30 points)

4.Drawing upon class materials, write an essay (1 page) discussing the 3 major themes in the study of ethnomedicine. What is “ethnomedicine” and how does it differ from “biomedicine?” What are the 3 major themes in the study of ethnomedicine presented in class materials? (20 points)