In regards to the “Plain View” doctrine, any of the five human senses may provide information that meks it “immediately apparent” to the police that the object is evidence of a crime. Discuss the senses applicable to plain view and their application

ords, and provide the citations and references for the searches you make. Explain in detail and provide examples when necessary. If and when you do your research, please remember to include your IN TEXT CITATION (This is a must to avoid plagiarism). Which means some questions ask you to make some research, and again please include the IN TEXT CITATION after your responds. And also provide the REFERENCES of where you got your source from.

1) In regards to the “Plain View” doctrine, any of the five human senses may provide information that meks it “immediately apparent” to the police that the object is evidence of a crime. Discuss the senses applicable to plain view and their application.

2) Many federal, state, and local governmental agencies now require suspicionless drug testing of employees with duties “fraught with such risks of injury to others that even a momentary lapse of attention can have disastrous consequences.” Come up with a list of pros and cons (a minimum of four each) for generalized drug testing in the workplace. What is your personal opinion of random drug testing for employees? What is the basis for your opinion? 

3) Research the history of school authorities being able to search students and their lockers. Summarize the development of this issu in the courts and what is now the current standard. What criteria would you establish in order for a search of students or their lockers to be valid? What is your underlying rationale?

4) The Leon good faith exception permits the use of evidence obtained through the use of a search warrant containing a technical error that does not violate a fundamental constitutional right of a suspect. This is exemplified by officers who served a warrant that was later found to be invalid because of an error by court administration or some other error that the police were not privy to. Should it matter whether the typing or other grammatical error was made by the clerk of court or by the police? Why or why not? What rationale are you basing your decision on?

5) Review the case Nix v. Williams and respond to the following: Do you feel that the Supreme Court made the correct assumption in stating that the searchers probably would have found the deceased girl's body even without the information provided by Williams? If the Supreme Court had ruled that the subsequent discovery of the body and related evidence was fruit of the poisonous tree would justice have been served? Why or why not?

6) In everyday life, we judge other people not only by what they say but also to some extent by their appearances and their conduct. Do you feel that the demeanor of a witness can and does affect the outcome of a trial? Why or why not? Do you feel it is possible for a witnesses's demeanor to affect his/her credibility while testifying? If so, could not this be used as a tactic by either the prosecution or defense to strengthen their case? Give examples.

7) Research the hisotry and development of the implementation and use of grand juries in our criminal court process. Explain the history and current state of how and why the grand jury process was implemented in the United States. What do you see as the primary benefit of using a grand jury process? Can you think of any drawbacks to using such a process? Use at least one reference in your research.
8) Define “hearsay” and provide an example. Be sure to explain why the example meets the definition of “hearsay”.

9) After years of prosecutions in the 1980's and 1990's and thousands of cases where accusations of child sexual abuse were made against child care workers, babysitters, family memebers, and otehrs; however, it has become clear that many problems exists. Courts have responded to the problems of very young children as victims by relaxing hearsay rules so that more adults can testify about ou-of-court statements made by children. Research and find at least one court case within the past 20 years that have resulted in wrongful convictions based on children's erroneous testimony, summarize the case, the outcome and concerns of child testimony may create, given the relaxing of the Hearsay Rules.

10) Research and summarize the case of Fare v Michael C (1979). In addition respond to the following: What additional factors are to be taken into account when determining whether a confession by a juvenile was considered to have been voluntary?What concerns would you have on judging whether or not a juvenile was capable of understanding their rights? What criteria would you use?

11) In your own words, define reasonable suspicion. Why is this so important in regards to the police making a Terry Stop? More specifically, what should the standard be for the word reasonable?

12) In the case of government employees, courts generally hold that the employee has not legitimate expectation of privacy in a computer used in that employment. Do you agree or disagree with the courts in this matter? Why or why not? Come up with at least two arguments for or against the court's ruling.

13) Research and summarize the Scott Peterson trial of 2003. What impact did the use of Global Positioning systems (GPS) by the police have on this case, and what did the police have to do in order to obtain GPS evidence? Why did police believe GPS evidence would assist them in their investigation?

14) Gruesome photographs may be used as evidence if they are relevant to some issue before the court. The trial judge has a great deal of discretion in determining whether such photos are needed and how many photos may be shown. Should the jury be “spared” such photographs when it is the reality of the case? What conditions would you place, if any, on the jury being exposed to such photographs and why?

15) When law enforcement officers arrive at a crime scene where a dead person has been found, it is important to the investigation that the officers determine the time the death occurred. Research and report activities of what is know as the “Body Farm”; how does the work done at the body farm aid investigators? What type of work is being done at the body farm? How does the body farm obtain the bodies used in its research?